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Advance skills-Meat CUL 170

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Joseph Mele

on 5 September 2016

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Transcript of Advance skills-Meat CUL 170

Meats
Conclusion
Thank you for your attention!
And one more thing...
is here
The system of breaking down a carcass is as follows:
When we refer to "meat" we are actually referring to any
edible part of the carcass.
The muscular and skeletal structure of cattle, hogs and sheep consists of
WATER, PROTEIN, FATS
and
MINERALS
A. Whole Carcass--
Whole animal minus entrails, head, feet and hide
B. Partial carcass--
Large cuts, like a side of beef
C. Primal Cuts--
Primary divisions of the carcass
D. Fabricated cuts
Small enough to be manageable,
fabricated into smaller cuts.
75
% water
20
% protein
5
% fat
1
% other
WATER
Amt of water affects:
shrinkage
Range of content:
fat increases
and water decreases as the
animal ages
Moisture loss results in :
Dry meat, loss of weight, loss of profit
Factors affecting moisture loss:
Heat, salt, handling, acidity.
PROTEIN
MYOFIBRILLAR-
actual muscles

STROMAL-
Connective Tissue

Sarcoplasmic-
Pigmentation, primary, myoglobin
Each muscle is composed of:
Bundles of muscle fibers,
held together by
connective tissues
Skeletal:
Attached directly or indirectly to the bone
Cardiac:
Forms the animals heart
Smooth:
Found in the animal's stomach and reproductive system
Types we use as meat:
Skeletal
The texture and Grain of the meat is determined by the characteristics of the muscle:
Thickness of cells, size of the bundles and connective tissue holding them together.

If bundles of fibers are small, what type of texture will the meat have? What if they are large?
Small-Tender; Large-Less tender
Connective Tissue Functions:
Form walls or long muscles
Binds them into bundles
Surrounds muscles as a membrane
Connects muscles to bones,
ligaments and tendons
The most important thing a Chef needs to know about connective tissue is:
They are tough
Connective tissues are highest in:
Older animals; frequently used muscles.
Collagen
White
Yes
Moist heat
Gelatin & Water
Acids, Mechanically,
sliced thin against the grain
Elastin
Yellowish
No
Remove it or grind it
The function of Myoglobin:
Hold Oxygen in the blood
The more myoglobin,
the darker the meat
Beef 8 Bright Red
Lamb 6 Red
Pork 2 Grayish Pink
Veal 2 Light Pink
Chicken 2 Dark Meat
Fish 2 Veins
FAT
Fats in meat provide

flavor, moisture, tenderness
The texture of fat ranges from:
Very soft to solid
This is a result of:
species of animal and placement in the body
The two types of fat in meat are:
Subcutaneous:
Exterior fat around muscles
Marbling:
Intramuscular fat
Other
Carbohydrates-
Meats contain a small amt of carbohydrates
Vitamins & Minerals-
Great source of Vitamins & Minerals
All Beef contains ZIP=
Zinc, Iron, Protein
Lesson 1 Meats-Primal Round
Yes
USDA
Wholesomeness, fit for human consumption
Approved for meat carcasses
Federally inspected pre-packaged processed products
No
USDA
QUALITY
Quality Grading
Charasterictic
For a High grade
1

2

3
_________________
_________________
_________________
_______________
________________
_______________
Texture, firmness, color
Smooth, firm, bright cherry red
Age
12: 15 months old
Marbling
More for a higher grade
Characteristic
Beef
Veal
Lamb
Pork
Highest quality
Highest price
Limited supply

High in quality
Generally tender
Abundant supply

Lean meat
Not as tender or juicy

Less frequently used
Institutional pet food.

Prime
Choice
Select
Standard,
Commercial,
Utility and
Cutter/Canner
Prime
Choice
Good
Standard
Utility
Cull
Prime
Choice
Good
No Grade
No Grade
No Grade
QUALITY GRADES FOR MEATS
Yield grades indicate:

Useable meat in proportion to fat
.
The grades range in number from
1 to 5 with 1 being the meatiest
and 5 being the poorest (fattiest).
One type of meat is NOT generally yield graded. Which one and why?
Veal: it has little fat

YIELD GRADES
Grading is
not mandatory
, so meat packers can choose how to grade;
Quality

grade only, yield grade only, both or neither.
GRADING DISTRIBUTION
89%
of fed cattle are both quality and yield graded.
Yield graded carcasses in
the U.S.
___7___% Yield grade 1

__45____% Yield grade 2

__44____% Yield grade 3

___4___% Yield grade 4 & 5
Quality Graded Carcasses

in the U.S.
__2___% Prime

__83___% Choice

__15___% Select
No roll:
Not graded, inconsistent
Rolled:
consistent

Aging Meats
What is aging and why is it important?
Beef and lamb are aged to maximize flavor and tenderness
Enzymes in meat break down connective tissue

What meats are aged? What meats are not?
We do not age pork or veal:
they can be consumed 6 hours

after slaughter


What does the term “green” meat mean?
Still under rigor mortis conditions

How long does meat need to age to reach the desired point of tenderness?
12 - 14 days

Wet Aging
Description:
Storing meat in cryovac under refrigeration
Advantages:
Protects meat from bacteria and mold prevents weight loss
Disadvantages:
Can lose more weight when cooking


Dry Aging

Description:
Hanging meat in a controlled environment for up to 6 weeks: low moisture
Advantages:
Better texture and flavor
Disadvantages:
Can lose up to 20% of weight through moisture loss


CUTTING MEATS
Butcher:
Someone who can cut meat into portion sizes.
Dress:
Animals that are gutted, bled, sometimes skinned and decapitated.
Fabricate:
To cut meat or seafood so it is ready to be cooked
Carve:
To cut up cooked meat

IMPS:
Institutional Meat Purchasing Specifications
NAMP:
North American Meat Processors Association (was National Association of Meat Purveyors) In March 1996, NAMP retained its acronym, but changed its name to the North American Meat Processors Association. NAMP now has more than 400 members throughout and the world.


Meat Buyer’s guide:
Useful tool in preventing miscommunications between purveyors and purchasers, published by NAMP
The Numerical system labels cuts of meat.
Beef: 100, Lamb: 200, Veal: 300, Pork: 400
Ex: IMPS #109 Rib Roast

The types of meat you purchase and the form you purchase them in is dependent upon a number of factors. What do you think some of these factors might be?

Skill of staff
Time of staff
Type of menu
Storage capabilities
Cost of product
Ability to use byproducts


Developing Purchasing Specifications (AKA _Spec___)

Item Name:
Hamburger
Example:
Ground beef patties
Grade:
Ground beef is not usually graded
Weight Range:
4 oz each
State of Refrigeration:
Frozen
Fat Limitations:
15% fat content
NOTES:
Packed in 10# boxes, 40# cases

Storing Meats
The proper storage of meats is very important because:
You need to keep it clean.
You need to keep it cold.
Keep it properly rotated.


Guidelines for Storing Meats
Fresh Meats
Temperature between 30 - 35° F
Vacuum packed meats have a shelf life of 3: 4 weeks.
Fresh meat has a maximum shelf life of 1 week.
Do not wrap meats tightly in plastic wrap.
Store meat on trays away from other foods.

Frozen Meats
Freezes at 28° F
When freezing, faster is better. Smaller ice crystals when colder.
Slow freezing produces large ice crystals.
Properly handled meat stored at below 0° will have a shelf life of 6 months.
Always thaw under refrigeration.

Cooking meats has two major effects:
Tenderizing connective tissue, flavor, appearance. Toughens proteins

The difference between high heat and low heat also has an affect on the proteins in meat including:

High heat toughens, shrinks proteins, excessive moisture loss.
Low heat produces less moisture loss, higher yield.


Choosing a cooking method:
Initial tenderness / toughness of the cut (amount of connective tissue): Dry heat for more tender. Braise stew: tougher cuts
Fat content: High fat content: roasted broiling
Flavor: Searing grilling
Preventing shrinkage: Low heat, except for small tender cuts
Appearance: Cook to a caramelized brown color, not grey

Preparing meats for cooking
Pounding:
Tenderizes, breaks down connective tissue
Scoring:
Tiny slices in raw meat, helps infuse flavors and tenderize
Injection:
Add flavor and marinades inside, large cuts
Marinating:
Adds flavor, tenderizes
Barding:
Cover lean cuts with fats, keeps moist and adds flavor
Larding:
Injecting fat to lean cuts for moisture and flavor

Dry Heat: Broiling / Grilling
Goal: Good appearance, cooked correctly, cook quickly
Break down connective tissue? No
Types of Cuts: Small, tender
Temperature: Usually high
Basic Procedure: Heat grill, clean, oil, season meat, grill:
cross hatch marks. Cook ½ way and turn, remove when
desired, temperature is achieved.

Dry Heat: Roasting
Goal: Develop optimal color and flavor: correct doneness
Break down connective tissue? No
Types of Cuts: Larger roasts
Temperature: Low
Basic Procedure: Heat oven, trim and season meat,
roast to desired temperature on rack.

Dry Heat: Sautéing
Goal: Good color, cook quickly, keep tender
Break down connective tissue? No
Types of Cuts: Small, thin, tender pieces
Temperature: High
Basic Procedure: White meat dredge, red meat no.
Heat pan and fat. Season meat, add to pan,
brown and turn, remove, degrease, make sauce.

Dry Heat: Pan Frying
Goal: Golden brown, crispy moist interior
Break down connective tissue? No
Types of Cuts: Small tender
Temperature: Moderate (350°)
Basic Procedure: Bread product, get fat hot, pan fry,
turn when ½ done. When cooked, remove and drain, serve
.

Moist Heat: Simmering
Goal: Tender, moist product
Break down connective tissue? Yes
Types of Cuts: Large cuts like brisket or chuck
Temperature: 185-205°
Basic Procedures: Sear meat if desired, add mirepoix,
add wine stock seasonings. Cook until tender,
remove meat, make sauce, serve.



Combination: Braising
Goal: Tender, moist, flavorful
Break down connective tissue? Yes
Types of Cuts: Large, tough cuts
Temperature: 185-205°
Basic Procedure: Sear, add vegetables, deglaze,
add stock, cover, simmer until tender,
remove, degrease, make sauce, serve.

Combination: Stewing
Goal: Tender, moist, flavorful, product
Break down connective tissue? Yes
Types of Cuts: Small pieces, tough
Temperature: 185-205°
Basic Procedures: Sear if desired, add mirepoix,
pincer, singer, add stock to cover, cook until tender.
Stewing Terms
Brown Stews: Seared meat, brown roux, brown stock
White Stews: Fricassee –No caramelization.
Keep sauce white. Blond or white roux
Blanquette: Same as white stew

Determining Doneness in Meats Cooked by Dry Heat Methods
Color
Red Meats: Red to pink to grey

White Meats:
Pink to grey-pink to white


Meat Rare Medium Well Done
Beef

130° 140-145° 160°
Lamb

130° 145° 160°
Veal

145-150° 160°
Pork

145-150° 160°

What does the USDA recommend a minimum internal temperature for meats.
How does this conflict with the above chart?

160° for USDA: too high for most people’s taste

What internal temperature needs to be reached for meats that are precooked for later sale (i.e. roast beef for sandwiches)?

145°

Carry-over cooking:

Can raise the interior temperature from 5-25°, depending on the size of the product.
How to Compensate:
Prime rib should be pulled out at 10-15° below desired final temperature.

Touch:

Grilled steaks normally tested
Rare:

Will offer almost no resistance
Medium:

Will feel slightly firm and springy
Well Done:

Very firm, springs back quickly

Time/Temperature Charts
:
Approximations, only used to estimate time

Factors that need to be considered other than
weight / oven temperature include:
Temperature of product before cooking
Amount of fat cover
Bones
Size of product
Number of times the door is opened
Shape or thickness of cut

Determining Doneness in Meats Cooked by Moist Heat / Combination Methods
Doneness in these methods is determined by
tenderness, not temperature.
Tested by:

Piercing with a fork, small piece tasted

VARIETY MEATS
The definition of variety meats is
various meats, organs, glands that are not part of the dressed carcass.


They can be broken down into two major categories:

Glandular Meats:
Muscle Meats:
LIVER
KIDNEY
SWEETBREADS
BRAINS
HEART
TONGUE
TRIPE
OXTAILS
Liver
Source Animal(s):

Beef, pork, calves’ liver,
most delicate.
Preparation:
Remove outer skin, remove veins, slice on bias ½” thick, panfry or sauté.

Sweetbreads
Source Animal(s):
Lamb, veal (thymus gland).
Preparation:
Soak blanch, chill, press, clean,
slice, sauté, panfry



Kidneys
Source Animal(s):
Veal, lamb
Preparation:
Split and remove fatty tissue and veins. Boiled, sautéed, grilled

Brains
Source Animal(s):
Calves, most frequently
Preparation:
Soak, peel, poach, shock, sauté, fry, scramble

Tripe
Source Animal(s):
Beef stomach lining
Preparation:
Requires several hours of simmering to be tender

Tongue
Source Animal(s):
Beef, veal, lamb
Preparation:
Simmer, remove skin and trim gristle at base

Heart
Source Animal(s):
Beef or veal
Preparation:
Trim, coarse, fibers and veins inside braise

Oxtails
Source Animal(s):
Beef
Preparation:
Cut with knife, not cleaver. You can splinter bones


What are some other variety meats not listed here?
Why do you suppose variety meats are used less often than they were in the past?
Feet, ears, snout, stomach intestines. Picky Americans

Beef:
The meat of domestic cattle
Current trends in the consumption of beef:
Instructor led discussion
Quality varies with
age, breed, and feed.
Breed affects
the size of the carcass, fatness/leanness and grain (fine vs. coarse).

Cattle:
Collective name of all domestic oxen
Bulls:
Males: not usually consumed
Cows:
Females after first calving
Heifers:
Young cow before calving
Steers:
Males castrated prior to maturity: beef
Stags:
Males castrated after maturity: dog food

Most beef consumed in the U.S. come from steers which are slaughtered at
18 months
of age and weigh between
800 and 1200 lbs
.

The first subdivision of the carcass is to break it down into quarters. This is done by
splitting the carcass down the backbone, then cutting between the 13th and 14th rib.

PRIMAL CUT #1 Chuck
Description
The primal chuck is the animal’s shoulder.

% of Carcass
28%
IMPS #
113
Characteristics of
Meat
Chuck contains a high percent of connective tissue, quite tough, but very flavorful
Fabricated Cuts
Shoulder clod, square cut boneless, chuck roll, chuck tender, beef fore shank, Flatiron

Cooking Methods
Moist heat, some cuts dry heat-grilling. More fat, more flavor than round.

Serving Suggestions
Pot Roast, Short Ribs, Grilled Flatiron



PRIMAL CUT #2
Rib
Description
Ribs 6-12

% of Carcass
10%
IMPS #
103
Characteristics of
Meat
The eye meat is not well exercised
so it is very tender.

Fabricated Cuts
Rib roast, rib blade meat,
rib eye roll. Ribeye steak


Cooking Methods
Dry heat
.


Serving Suggestions
Prime Rib, Ribeye Roast,
Grilled Ribeye Steak


PRIMAL CUT #3 Short Loin
Description
The short loin in the
anterior (front) of the beef loin.


% of Carcass
8%
IMPS #
173
Characteristics of
Meat
Yields some of the best, most expensive cuts, popular.

Fabricated Cuts
Porter house, T-bone, Strip loin, tender loin, club steak. Filet Mignon




Cooking Methods
Dry heat.


Serving Suggestions
NY Strip steak; Steak Au Poivre; Roast NY Striploin; Beef Stroganoff; Roast Tenderloin of Beef


PRIMAL CUT #4 Sirloin
Description
Located between short loin and round.

% of Carcass
7%
IMPS #
184
Characteristics of Meat
Not as tender as short loin, but more flavorful.

Fabricated Cuts
Top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin, ball tip, tri tip

Cooking Methods
Dry

Serving Suggestions
Teriyaki Steak; Roast Sirloin of Beef; Grilled Tri-Tip Steak


PRIMAL CUT #5 Round
Description
The primal round is very large, can weigh 200 #, Hind leg.

% of Carcass
24%
IMPS #
163
Characteristics of Meat
Meat is flavorful, lean, fairly tender.

Fabricated Cuts
Steamship, knuckle, top round,
gooseneck round, bottom round, eye round.


Cooking Methods
Moist and dry heat methods apply.

Serving Suggestions
Pot Roast; Roast beef;
Swiss Steak; Beef Stew; Ground Beef/Hamburger



PRIMAL CUT #6 Flank
Description
The flank is directly below the loin and has no bones.

% of Carcass
6%
IMPS #
Can’t purchase whole

primal
Characteristics of Meat
Very flavorful but tough cut, good deal of fat and connective tissue
.

Fabricated Cuts
Flank steak, ground beef

Cooking Methods
Dry heat, moist also

Serving Suggestions
Grilled Flank Steak; Stuffed Flank; Ropa Vieja


PRIMAL CUT #7 Short Plate
Description
Located directly below primal rib.

% of Carcass
9%
IMPS #
Can’t whole purchase primal
Characteristics of Meat
Contains rib bones and cartilage.

Fabricated Cuts
Short ribs, skirt steak.

Cooking Methods
Moist and dry.

Serving Suggestions
Braised Short Ribs; Grilled Skirt Steak; Fajitas; Ground Beef



PRIMAL CUT #8 Brisket/Shank
Description
Consists of breast and Shank

% of Carcass
8%
IMPS #
Can't purchase whole
Primal
Characteristics of Meat
Tough, fatty, lots of connective tissue.

Fabricated Cuts

Brisket, fore shank.

Cooking Methods
Brisket: moist. Shank great for stocks. Pickled, corned.

Serving Suggestions
Corned Beef Brisket; Beef Stew; Hamburger



Veal:
The meat from cattle under the age of 9 months, most veal is slaughtered between the age of 3 and 5 months.

How does veal differ from beef?
Age of the animal, color of the meat, tenderness, amount of fat, flavor

How does milk-fed veal differ from free-range veal?
The meat will be darker due to the fact that the animal is grass fed (iron). Milk fed veal has an unmistakable pink hue.



Classifications of Veal
Characteristic Bob Veal Special Fed Veal Calves
Age
Under 3 months 3-5 months 6-9 months
Weight
Less than 150# 350-400# 400-750#
Color
Light pink Creamy pink Dark pink to red
Texture
Slightly soft Firm and smooth Firm with some fat
Feed
Milk only Milk supplement Grain, hay, some milk
Uses
Cutlets, cubes, Chops, cutlets, roasts Stew meat, breaded cutlets
Patties

Inspection of Veal differs from beef in that veal
are categorized:
Ante-mortem: before death, and Post-mortem: after slaughter
Grading criteria for veal:
Amount of feathering and flank streaking, color, texture

Grading of Veal
Grade Feathering/Streaking Color Texture
Prime
Abundant amounts Creamy pink Firm
Choice
Traces Light pink Firm
Select
Almost no streaks Dark pink to red Slightly firm
Standard
Not used in food service
---------- ----------
Utilit
Not used in food service
---------- ----------

Brand names have become important in the veal industry. Why do you think this has resulted in a reduction in quality grading done by the USDA to only 10%?
Veal flesh begins to change due to iron in diet.

Purchasing, Handling and Storing Veal
Veal is best used fresh.
Freeze only when absolutely necessary.
If you need frozen, buy frozen
Refrigerate veal as soon as it is received.
Do not open vacpac veal until needed.
Wrap non-vacpac meat properly.
Store at 32-34°, ground 1-2 days
Chops and roasts: 2-4 days

IMPS / NAMP categories for veal are in the
300 series.
Doneness in veal:
Veal is usually cooked medium or well.

PRIMAL CUT #1 Shoulder
Description :
Similar to beef chuck.

% of Carcass
21%
IMPS #
309
Characteristics of Meat
Often ground or cut into stew meat

Fabricated Cuts
Shoulder roasts, chops, shoulder clod steaks, cubed steaks, stew meat, ground veal

Cooking Methods
Although tender enough to be cooked by any method due to connective tissue, often moist heat applies

Serving Suggestions
Braised Shoulder chops of veal, Blanquette de Veau;
Veal Pojarsky; Veal Fricassee
PRIMAL CUT #2 Rib
Description : A
lso known as the veal “Hotel Rack”, most often trimmed and cut into chops.

% of Carcass
9%
IMPS #
306
Characteristics of Meat
Very popular / expensive, very tender

Fabricated Cuts:
Rib chops / Rib roasts
Frenching: meat trimmed from bone on rack

Cooking Methods:
Dry heat

Serving Suggestions :
Grilled Veal Chop; Roast Rack Of Veal






PRIMAL CUT #3 Loin
Description:
The loin is posterior to the primal rib.
Contains 2 ribs, the loin eye muscle and the tenderloin.
% of Carcass
10%
IMPS #
331
Characteristics of Meat
Very tender: tenderloin is the most tender.

Fabricated Cuts :
Saddle (loin roast)
Loin chops
Noisette: small medallions of meat

Cooking Methods
Dry heat


Serving Suggestions:
Stuffed Loin Chops of Veal; Roast Loin of Veal; Paiilard of Veal; Veal Scallopini.............


PRIMAL CUT #4 Leg
Description:
Consists of both the sirloin and leg.

% of Carcass
42%
IMPS #
334
Characteristics of Meat Tender to tougher, which get pounded.

Fabricated Cuts:
Leg roasts, cutlets, scaloppini, shank for ossobuco
.


Cooking Methods:
Roasts and cutlets, dry heat, shanks: moist heat


Serving Suggestions:
Veal Cutlet Milanese; Veal Marsala, etc. Roast Top Round of Veal, Osso Bucco Milanese


PRIMAL CUT #5
Foreshank / Breast
Description:
Located beneath the shoulder and rib. These are well exercised muscles.
% of Carcass
16%
IMPS #
312 / 31
3
Characteristics of Meat
Tougher meat, lots of cartilage

Fabricated Cuts:
Boneless or bone-in breast, cubed steaks, ground veal, cross-cut steaks

Cooking Methods
Lots of connective tissue, moist heat applies


Serving Suggestions:
Stuffed Breast Of Veal, Veal Burgers; Cubed Steak of Veal
Because of its small size, veal is fairly easily handled.
For this reason, veal can be purchased in cuts larger than the primal cut. Some options include:
Foresaddle:
Contains primal shoulder, foreshank, breast, and rib.

Hindsaddle:
Contains primal loin and leg.

Back:
Loin and rib sections in one piece.

Veal Side:
One whole side of veal.

Establishments are more likely to fabricate veal than other meats. Is this statement true or false? What are the reasons for this? Instructor led discussion

Meat of sheep is classified differently based on age
Lamb:
under 1 year of age
Yearling:
1 – 2 years old
Mutton:
over 2 years old

Major criteria used to determine age is:
the break joint
Under
1 year: still flexible
Over 1 year:
fused

DOMESTIC VS IMPORTED LAMB


Characteristic American Foreign
Production
Bred for meat Bred for wool
Size
63-70#

30-35#
Feeding
Fed grain Fed grass
Flavor of meat
Mild Gamey
Age at slaughter
6-9 months Under 1 year

Most imported lamb in US comes from:
New Zealand and Australia

Spring Lamb refers to:
not fed grass or grain; Milk fed 3-5 mos old; Born in late winter, slaughtered by July 1

Inspection:
all meat produced for public consumption is federally inspected

90%
of American lamb grades:
choice or prime

USDA grading for lamb takes into account:
fat to lean ratios, marbling, and size

4 Weight Ranges recognized for lamb as follows
Range 1 –
30 – 41#
Range 2 –
42 – 53#
Range 3 –
54 – 65#
Range 4 –
66 – 70#

IMPS/NAMP categories for lamb are in the:
200 series

Purchasing, Storing, and Handling Lamb
Store between 28 – 32
Refrigerate immediately
Don’t open vac seal until needed
Wrap non vacpac properly
Avoid cross-contamination
Store separately to avoid absorption of odors
Freeze immediately – below 0
Thaw under refrigeration

Why is lamb not as popular in America/why people order it rather than cook it at home:
gamier taste, very expensive

not classified by forequarter or hindquarter like beef or foresaddle, hinesaddle, like veal
5
Leg
Shoulder
Breast
Rack
Loin
Primal Cut 1:
Shoulder
Description
Contains many small tough muscles, grains travel in different directions.
% of Carcass 36% IMPS #
206
Characteristics of Meat
Tough, lots of connective tissue.

Fabricated Cuts
Shoulder roasts, shoulder chops, arm chops, stew meat, ground lamb.
Cooking Methods
Chops – dry, but most other cuts used for stew, so moist applies.

Serving Suggestions
Lamburgers, Navarin of Lamb; Grilled Shoulder Chops; Irish Lamb stew

Primal Cut 2:
Rack
Description
“Hotel Rack” contains 8 bones, not 7 like beef or veal.
% of Carcass
8%
IMPS #
236
Characteristics of Meat
Very tender eye muscle.

Fabricated Cuts
Lamb rack – rib chops or roast, crown roast.
Cooking Methods
Dry

Serving Suggestions
-Rack of Lamb; Grill Rib Chops


Primal Cut 3:
Loin
Description
Located between the rib and leg, loin eye muscle and tenderloin.
% of Carcass
13%
IMPS #
232
Characteristics of Meat
Very tender.

Fabricated Cuts
Loin roasts, loin chops, tenderloin, noisettes.
Cooking Methods
Dry.

Serving Suggestions
Roast Loin of Lamb: Grilled Loin Lamb Chops; Noisettes of Lamb


Primal Cut 4:
Leg
Description
Rarely used whole, rather split and boned or partially boned
.
% of Carcass
34%
IMPS #
233
Characteristics of Meat
Tender – more so on the sirloin end than the shank end.

Fabricated Cuts
Leg roasts, top round, leg chops, sirloin chops, shank, cutlets.
Cooking Methods
Dry, except for shank.

Serving Suggestions
Roast leg of lamb; Grilled Top round of Lamb; Braised lamb shanks; Lamb stew;



Primal Cut 5:
Foreshank/Breast
Description:
Located between shoulder and rib. Chefs can be creative with this cut.
% of Carcass
17%
IMPS #
209, 210
Characteristics of Meat
Tough, lots of connective tissue.

Fabricated Cuts
Riblets, breast, ground lamb, stew meat, shank.
Cooking Methods
Moist heat.

Serving Suggestions
Braised Lamb Shanks, Lamburger; Denver Ribs; Lamb Stew



Appropriate accompaniments:
strong flavors allow for distinctive sauces and accompaniments.

Complimentary flavors:
mint, rosemary, garlic, mustard, thyme, oregano, marjoram, chutneys, pineapple, orange.

What is the “fell”:
The fell is the thin, paper-like covering on the outer fat. Remove the fell, it adds a strong flavor. However, it does help in holding the shape of the leg together while roasting, as well as retention of juices and flavor.

Degree of doneness:
Rare - 140°, Med - 150°, Well - 160°

You have whole roasted leg of lamb on your Sunday buffet, should you purchase your lamb bone-in or boneless/why:

boneless, easier to clean out fat and silver skin – season inside faster, more even cooking

Pork is defined as:
meat of hogs, usually under 1 year of age

Two thirds of pork sold in the US is sold as:
cured products like ham and bacon

Generally hogs are slaughtered
between the age of: 6 and 9

A hog carcass generally weighs between:
200 and 210 lbs

Today pork is:
31% leaner than 20 years ago

Pork:
is federally
Inspected to insure: wholesomeness

Pork:
is not
Quality graded because: there is little variation in the quality of cuts

Pork:
is
Yield graded based on: lean to fat ratios

Trichinosis importance:
parasite which is undetectable in living animals and can be transmitted to humans, parasite is killed at 138 degrees

Still an issue today:
a rare issue today
Why/why not: pork fed raw garbage can still be contaminated, fear of diseases has led to over-cooking


Purchasing, Storing, and Handling Pork
Store fresh meat at 28
Frozen, 0 or below
Thaw in refrigerator
Pork shows 1st sign of spoilage near the bone, keep 1-2 days
Store vacuum-packed product as processor recommends

IMPS/NAMP categories for pork in the:
400 series

Pork usually cooked: 145-155


halves, down the backbone, and then broken down into primal cuts
5
Fresh Ham
Belly
Shoulder
Loin
Boston Butt
Primal Cut 1:
Shoulder
Description
Lower portion of the hogs foreleg
% of Carcass
20%
IMPS #
403
Characteristics of Meat
Relatively tough cut of meat

Fabricated Cuts
Pork shoulder, picnic ham, fresh picnic, hocks –
foreshank, ground pork, sausage
Cooking Methods
Dry and moist heat apply, picnic simmered

Serving Suggestions
Pulled Pork, Sausages, Braised Picnic Shoulder, Pickled Ham Hocks


Primal Cut 2:
Boston butt
Description
Square cut located just above the shoulder
% of Carcass
7%
IMPS #
406
Characteristics of Meat
Fatty – the meat to fat ratio makes this a great cut for sausage
and pulled pork barbeque
Fabricated Cuts
Butt steaks, shoulder roasts, daisy ham – smoked, cottage ham – boneless, ground pork
Cooking Methods
Moist heat, braising is best

Serving Suggestions
Pulled Pork, Sausage, Smoked Cottage Ham


Primal Cut 3:
Belly
Description
The belly is prepared from the side after being removed from the ham, shoulder, loin, and fat back
% of Carcass
16%
IMPS #
409
Characteristics of Meat
Located below the loin, very fatty with only streaks of lean meat

Fabricated Cuts
Spare ribs, bacon
Cooking Methods
Moist and dry cooking methods

Serving Suggestions
Braised Pork Belly




Primal Cut 4:
Loin
Description
Hogs are bred to produce a long loin. Rib and loin 1 primal, located behind the Boston Butt
% of Carcass
20%
IMPS #
410
Characteristics of Meat
The most prized cut – long cylindrical eye (pork chops cut from entire loin)
Fabricated Cuts
Loin roast, Loin and rib chops, Boneless loin, Tenderloin, Baby back ribs, Canadian bacon, fat back
Cooking Methods
Primarily dry heat, ribs can be moist

Serving Suggestions
Stuffed Pork Chops; Roast Loin of Pork; Grilled Pork Tenderloin; BBQ Baby Back Ribs



Primal Cut 5:
Ham
Description
The hind legs
% of Carcass
24%
IMPS #
402
Characteristics of Meat
Large yield, tender

Fabricated Cuts
Fresh and smoked hams, ham steaks, shank for pork ossobuco, or ham hock
Cooking Methods
Dry mostly – moist for shank

Serving Suggestions


Curing Methods

Dry Curing:
involves salting the surface of the ham (often with other flavoring and or curing agents) until the salt has saturated the meat
Brining:
immersing the ham in a brine (salty marinade 3 to 5%) usually with added seasoning and sweeteness. This results in moisture retention and tenderizes the meat.
Injection:
brine is injected into the meat

Smoking Methods
Cold Smoking:
product is put in a chamber without heat, the smoke is pumped in
Hot Smoking:
cooking with dry heat in the presence of smoke

HAM
Name Description
Fresh Ham
Not cured or smoked
Country Ham
General name for cured hams
Kentucky
Heavily smoked, very lean
Smithfield
Dry cured for many months, results in a
dense, dark meat
Sugar cured
Ham cured in brine containing molasses
or sugar
Virginia
Dry cured in barrels for several weeks,
then coated with molasses, pepper and
sugar, cured for 2 more weeks.
Boiled Ham
Common term for a cured ham which is
boned, rolled, and boiled.
Canned Ham
May or may not be smoked.
Prosciutto
From the Parma region of Italy – cured only.
Westphalian
One of the best hams from Germany.
Blackforest
Pigs fed acorns in Germany.

BACON
Name Description
Cured – maple
Pumped with brine and smoked
Slab
Not sliced – longer shelf life
Canadian
From the loin, smoked
Peameal
Loin, but not smoked
Pancetta
Rolled, cured from Italy
Country cured
Salty, strong flavor
Sliced
From the belly



SAUSAGE
Name
Description

Breakfast
Patties or links - sage
Chorizo
Spain
Chorichio
Portugal
Italian
Sweet and hot – fennel seed
Bratwurst
Germany
Knockwurst
Germany
Salami (Salumi)
Italy
Mortadella
Italy
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