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Conceptual Metaphor Theory

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by

Grace Schenher

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Conceptual Metaphor Theory

Conceptual Metaphor Theory
The conceptual metaphor theory was first brought to the forefront by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in 1980 in a book titled "Metaphors We Live By".
Systematicity
Orientational Metaphors
Gibbs Jr, R.W. (2011). Evaluating conceptual metaphor theory.
Discourse Processes, 48:8, 529-562
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Yu, Xiu (2014). What are the metaphors we live by? Theory and
Practice in Language Studies, 3:8 , 1467-1472
Lakoff & Johnson (1980)
"metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people think that they can get along perfectly well without metaphor"
"We have found, on the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature."
TIME IS MONEY
HEALTH AND LIFE ARE UP;
SICKNESS AND DEATH ARE DOWN
He's at the peak of health
Lazarus rose from the dead
He's in top shape
As to his health, he's way up there
He fell ill
He's sinking fast
He came down with the flu
His health is declining
He dropped dead
You're wasting my time
This gadget will save you hours
I don't have the time to give you
How do you spend your time these days?
That flat tire cost me an hour
I don't have enough time to spare for that
You're running out of time
You need to budget your time
Put aside some time for ping pong
Is that worth your while?
Do you have much time left?
He's living on borrowed time
You don't use your time profitably
I lost a lot of time when I got sick
Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
TIME IS A VALUABLE COMMODITY
TIME IS A RESOURCE
CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN
HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN
HAVING CONTROL OF FORCE IS UP;
BEING SUBJECT TO CONTROL OF FORCE IS DOWN
VIRTUE IS UP; DEPRAVITY IS DOWN
Resources
In Politics...
George Bush
“We will
stay the course
. We will help this young Iraqi democracy
succeed" -George Bush
“We will win in Iraq as long as we
stay the course
.”
-George Bush
“Democrats have now turned ‘
stay the course
’ into an attack line in campaign commercials, and the Bush team is busy explaining that ‘
stay the course
’ does not actually mean
stay the course
."
Gibbs Jr, R.W. (2011)
Ontological Metaphors
Referring
Quantifying
Identifying Aspects
Identifying Causes
Setting Goals/Motivating Actions
THE MIND IS A MACHINE
We're still trying to grind out the solution to this equation
My mind just isn't operating today
Boy, the wheels are turning now
I'm a little rusty today
We've been working on this problem all day and now we're running out of steam
Lakoff and Johnson (1980)
Al Gore
" Today, commerce rolls not just on asphalt highways but along information highways. And tens of millions American families and business now use computers and find that the 2-lane information pathways bulit for telephone service are no longer adequate. This kind of growth will create thousands ofjobs in the communications industry.

To understand what new systems we must create though, we must first understand how the information marketplace of the future will operate.

One helpful way is to think of the National Information Infrastructure as a network of highway-must like the Interstates begun in the 50s.

There are highways carrying information rather than people or goods. And I'm not talking about just one eight-lane turnpike. I mean a collection of Interstates and freeder roads made up of different materials in the same way that roads can be concrete or macadam-or gravel. Some highways will be made up of fiber optics. Others will be built out of coaxial or wireless.

But-a key point-they must be and will be two way roads. These highways will be wider than today's technology permits. This is important because a television program contains more information than a telephone conversation; and because new uses of video and voice and computers will consist of even more information moving at even faster speeds. These are the computer equivalent of wide roads. They need wide roads. And these roads must go in both directions"
INTERNET IS A HIGHWAY
Yu (2013)
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