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**Bloom's Higher Level Thinking - Literacy DDE ER 3/11/11

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy, Marzano's Higher Level Thinking, Questions and Activities

Susan Mosher

on 11 March 2011

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Transcript of **Bloom's Higher Level Thinking - Literacy DDE ER 3/11/11

"Think left and think right
and think low and think high. 
the thinks you can think up
if only you try!"
(Theodor Seuss Geisel) Using Higher Level Thinking in the Elementary Classroom Please be sure to initial
next to your name on the
sign in sheet.
We will begin shortly.

Have you registered
for credit for
our DDE Early Release
SRN #11490001 Then came Anderson... First came Bloom's... How do you look at Bloom’s? Which model best matches how you see Bloom’s?
Would you invert the pyramid? Does it change your understanding?
Which would you be most likely to display in your classroom?  How do you look at Bloom’s? Which model best matches how you see Bloom’s?
 Would you invert the pyramid? Does it change your understanding?
 Which would you be most likely to display in your classroom? Remembering •KWL Chart (Know), Listing
•Matching games (vocabulary, pictures, etc)
•Spelling tests (words given to memorize)
•Digital Version of Remembering:
Bullet pointing- digital listing
Highlighting- key words for recall
Bookmarking or favorite-ing- digital listing
Searching or "Googling"- key word recall What is a plant?
How would you describe a plant? How would you identify a plant? List ways you already use Remembering in your classroom. Understanding •Retell
•Give an Example
•Frayer Model
•Marzano’s 6 Steps to Vocabulary Acquisition Model
•Digital Version of Understanding:
Advanced and Boolean Searching – create, modify and refine searches
Blog Journaling – "talks" "writes" or "types" a daily- or task-specific journal.
Categorizing – digital classification - organizing and classifying files, web sites and materials using folders etc.
Commenting and annotating – developing understanding by simply commenting on the pages (similar to writing notes on hand outs) What can you say about plants?
What did you observe about plants?
Give me an example of a plant. Plants Applying •Create “unknown” experiences for the students to test the knowledge they’ve attained
•Model, model, model, now show me what you can do
•Simulate- Models, Tableaux, Skits, Visual Representation
•Digital Version of Applying:
Playing –successfully play or operate a game showing understanding of process and task and application of skills.
Editing –a process or a procedure Hot sun No rain Sandy soil What would be the result of the new environment
you created for your plant? Analyzing •Break down the parts of a
non-fiction book
•Group the animals in the Animal
Kingdom in a different way
•Breaking apart Phonemes
and putting them back together
according to sound
•Present questions and organizers
before a learning experience
(Marzano’s Best Practices)
•Increase wait time when questioning.
Doing so will increase the depth of your
students' answers. (Marzano’s Best Practices)
•Vary the styles of organizers used (Marzano’s
Best Practices)
•Directly present similarities and differences,
accompanied by deep discussion and inquiry
(Marzano’s Best Practices)
•Ask students to identify similarities and differences on their own
•Use Venn diagrams or charts to compare and classify items
•Engage students in comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors and analogies
•Digital Version of Analyzing
Linking – establishing and building links within and outside of documents and web pages.
Validating – analyze the data sources and make judgements of validity.
Tagging – This is organizing, structuring and attributing online data "Analyzing is just like when I ______.
Analyzing is not like when _____. " vs. Evaluating Do you agree with their song choice?
How could you rate their performance?
Is there a better solution to their career choice?
What is your opinion of their vocal talents? •After taking notes, pass them to another student and have them add to them
•When polling, give students an opportunity to change their answers, “How confident are you of your answer, justify it to a partner”, then show the correct answer. (Phone a friend/ Poll the Audience/ Ask the Experts/ 50/50 on Millionaire);.
•After writing a rough draft, attach to the draft of your paper: your intent of audience and purpose. Peer editors mark where they lose interest, mark all the places where purpose was achieved, then edit verb age, and then hand a self assessment.
•Design a test to elicit critical thinking skills.
Digital Version of Evaluating
Blog/vlog commenting and reflecting – evaluate the material in context and reply.
Posting comments to blogs, discussion boards, threaded discussions- students' daily practice, structured and constructed to evaluate the topic or concept.
Moderating – This is high level evaluation; the moderator must be able to evaluate a posting or comment from a variety of perspectives, assessing its worth, value and appropriateness.
Collaborating– collaboration leading to collective intelligence, evaluating the strengths and abilities of the participants and evaluating the contribution they make. Kinder: I see this person's face everyday when people want to get candy out of me.
First: This person took care of me during our country's civil war, when no one seemed to care about the soldiers who were hurt.
Second: This man gave away our sneak attack, contributing to us to losing the war.
Third: This man came to my country and was lost, but still took my land and called it his new home for his country.
Fourth: I admire this man for his courage and passion for the new country he became president of, but am still disappointed he became a hero for killing so many of my comrades. What is your opinion of the Bloom's levels?
(Must provide support for your opinion.) Creating (Synthesis) Suppose you could be someone else.
What would you do differently?
What would you understand? •Make up a new language code and write material using it
•Propose a new way for the Three Pigs to build their houses
•Create a Role Play, Song, Commercial
•Create a habitat, historical figures desk/briefcase, etc.
•Create the story from another point of view (The Three Little Pigs vs. The True Story of the Three Little Pigs- K and 1st could brainstorm and write the story as a class. Red Riding Hood vs. Hoodwinked, The Wizard of Oz and Wicked, etc).
•Ask students to predict what would happen if an aspect of a familiar system, such as the alphabet, counting by 1’s, 5’s, 10’s, American money, government or transportation, were changed (for little ones, think “opposite day”). (Marzano’s Best Practices)
•Ask students to build something using limited resources. This task generates questions and hypotheses about what may or may not work. (Marzano’s Best Practices)
•Have students create their own goals
•Digital Version of Creating (Synthesis)
Filming, animating, videocasting, podcasting, mixing and remixing – capture, create, mix and remix content to produce unique products.
Directing and producing – have vision, understand the components and meld these into a coherent product.
Publishing – requires a huge overview of not only the content being published, but the process and product. Additional Teacher Resources:

Bloom’s Differentiation Online Tool:

Bloom’s Leveled Interactive Websites:

Online flip book for Bloom’s Revised levels, includes
Verbs, Activities, Questions, and Roles:
http://farr-integratingit.net/Theory/CriticalThinking/revisedcog-creating.htm Sources:
A Guide to Productive Pedagogies: Classroom Reflection Manual

Educational Oragami, “Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy”. http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom's+Digital+Taxonomy

Marzano, Robert, et al. (2007) The Art and Science of Teaching. ASCD: Alexandria, VA.

Marzano, Robert, et.al. (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD: Alexxandria, VA.

Anderson, Lorin and Krathwohl, David, et.al. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Longman: New York, NY.
•Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives
•1950s-developed by Benjamin Bloom
•Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking
•Been adapted for classroom use as a planning tool
•Continues to be one of the most universally applied models
•Provides a way to organize thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking
•1990s-Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisited the taxonomy
•As a result, a number of changes were made
I have come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It's my personal approach that creates the climate. It's my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child's life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized.

Haim Ginott

To incorporate the results of the last 35 years of research on teaching and learning and to make Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) more usable for aligning standards, instruction and assessment, Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl led a team of editors, who revised and enhanced the taxonomy in 2001.

The revised taxonomy is two-dimensional, identifying both the kind of knowledge to be learned (knowledge dimension) and the kind of learning expected from students (cognitive processes) to help teachers and administrators improve alignment and rigor in the classroom.

But WAIT! That's not all! Work Session Collaborate with your team:
1. Analyze the activities that are given in the grid as examples.

2. Read and discuss the objectives in the envelope. Where do these objectives fit on the grid?

3. Brainstorm some literacy projects or assignments that you currently use. Where would they currently fit on the grid? Is there a way to "tweak" the activity to make it a higher level process?

4. Look at the Common Core objectives for your grade level - focus on reading. Brainstorm 1 or 2 high level thinking projects that correlate to the new common core objectives. Given a choice of media, you will select the media that best supports the cognitive processes needed to perform the task at hand.
Given an instructional task, you will apply an instructional design methodology that promotes active learning.
The Knowledge Dimension Factual Knowledge -
The basic elements students must know to be aquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it. Conceptual Knowledge -
The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Procedural Knowledge -
How to do something, methods of inquiry,
and criteria for using skills, alogorithms,
techniques, and methods. Metacognitiive Knowledge -
Knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one's own cognition. (Thinking about what you are thinking about...) Using the Revised Taxonomy in an adaptation from the Omaha Public Schools Teacher's Corner, a lesson objective based upon the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears is presented for each of the six levels of the Cognitive Process as shown on the Revised Taxonomy Table.

Remember: Describe where Goldilocks lived.

Understand: Summarize what the Goldilocks story was about.

Apply: Construct a theory as to why Goldilocks went into the house.

Analyze: Differentiate between how Goldilocks reacted and how you would react in each story event.

Evaluate: Assess whether or not you think this really happened to Goldilocks.

Create: Compose a song, skit, poem, or rap to convey the Goldilocks story in a new form.

Although this is a very simple example of the application of Bloom's taxonomy the author is hopeful that it will demonstrate both the ease and the usefulness of the Revised Taxonomy Table.

http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/coursedev/models/id/taxonomy/#table See TABLEAUX in action:
http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1824 Cognitive Domain

Affective Domain

Psychomotor Domain A simple example... A note about technology.
Don't forget our onsite source of a plethora of information: AMY FENTON! http://www.beaconlearningcenter.com/weblessons/bloomstaxonomy/blooms06.htm
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