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Mental Health

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Olivia Carter

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Mental Health

Alcohol Consumption in College Students
Alcohol Consumption in College
Mental Health
Bi-Polar & Creativity
Bi-Polar disorder was once described as a "Divine madness... a gift from the gods"-Plato (427-347 bc)
Alcohol & Depression
Depression and low self-esteem
Depressive symptoms
Dvorak, Lamis, and Malone study
Affective disorders
Gender, Ethnicity, & Major
Men suicide rate
Women suicide rate
Klibert, Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Luna, and Robichaux study
Gay/lesbian/bisexual suicide rate
Risk & Preventative Factors
Risk factors

Mental Disorders
Family history
Environmental factors
Ausherman, J., Black, J. M., Rafiroiu, C. A., & Kandaakai, T. L. (2006). Behavioral
Outcomes of Urban College Students Alcohol Use. American Journal of Health Studies, 21(1/2), 69-78
Dvorak, R. D., Lamis, D. A., & Malone, P. S. (2013). Alcohol use, depressive
symptoms, and impulsivity as risk factors for suicide proneness among college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 149(1-3), 326-334. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.01.046
Klibert, J., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Luna, A., & Robichaux, M. (2011). Suicide
proneness in college students: Relationships with gender, procrastination, and achievement motivation. Death Studies, 35(7), 625-645. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2011.55311
Manning, J., & VanDeusen, K. (2011). Suicide Prevention on the Dot Com Era:
Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program. Journal of American College Health, 59(5), 431-433.
Oquendo MA, Lizardi D D, Greenwald S, Weissman MM, Mann JJ. (2004). Rates of
lifetime suicide attempt and rates of lifetime major depression in different ethnic groups in the United States. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(6), 446-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00404.x
Schwartz, A. J. (2006). College Student Suicide in the United States: 1990-1991
Through 2003-2004. Journal of American College Health, 54(6), 341-352.
Westefeld, J., Button, C., Haley, J., Kettmann, J., Macconnell, J., Sandil, R., &
Tallman, B. (2006). College Student Suicide: A Call to Action. Death Studies, 30(10), 931-956. doi: 10.1080/07481180600887130
"An individual may model his or her own drinking behavior according to observation...when the individual has less certain standing and fewer experiences."
Incorrect Student Norms
Students beliefs about their peers drinking habits are often overestimated and blown out of proportion.
If the characteristics of a group are similar to what an individual believes they will adapt to the groups other behaviors as well
Mental Health
Mental health and mental disorders. (2013, November 13). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/
"It is the state of successful performance of mental function"
This allows us to:
-Be productive
-Build relationships
-Adapt to change
-Cope with challenges
-Contribute to society

Suicide Among College Students
Suicide is the second leading cause of death at American colleges and Universities according to Schwartz.
Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.
-Helen Keller

How it relates to TSEM...
This research can help us understand how our social lives can be changed and how alcohol consumption relates to your well being and success in college. Alcohol can also affect our educational and financial well being and it is important to know why we decide to act the way we do. By choice or by influence?
Participation in Greek Life
What is depression?
-Depression is long term feelings of sadness or anxiety

that interupts daily actvities
-Patients have to experience symptoms for two weeks+
-Depression happens in cycles
-National Institute of Mental Health (2012) [Brochure].
Retrieved from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-and- college-students/depression-and-college-students.pdf
-Professor Llera personal communication, October 28, 2013
-Lihua, Z., Jian, C., Xiaqqun, L., Dali, L., & Linyan, S. (2013). Negative cognitive style as a mediator between self-compassion and hopelessness depression. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 41(9), 1511-1518
-Aselton, P. (2012). Sources of stress and coping in american college students who have been diagnosed with depression. Journal of child & adolescent psychiatric nursing, 25(3), 119-123. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6171.2012.00341.x
What causes depression?
The ability to manage stress
-Increase in competition for job = increase in stress=increase in symptoms of depression
: high self esteem seek treatment, low self-esteem do not seek treatment
: good things happen to positive people; more bad things happen to negative people

-Negtively impacts academic performance
-More likely to smoke
-Experience substance abuse
-Major risk to commit suicide
According to the NIMH, 44% of college students have symptoms of depression, and 75% of students did not seek help
When someone has depression they no longer feel like their life is meaningful
Treatment and Coping Skills
Antidepressants with psychotherapy can improve symptoms
1.Talking with friends
3. Writing in a journal
National Suicide Prevention Lifelines:
Dowell Health Center :
Talk to a peer educator
"Students who enter the Greek system will be exposed to a social environment that encourages heavy drinking, which then results in increased consumption and problems."
Greek life attracts those who want to continue their previous drinking habits
Those who enter Greek life not drinking will become familiar with an alcohol related environment and may eventually participate in the activity themselves.
"In order to be a sustaining member, one sheds a portion of their individual identity to become a functioning fraternity member."
Younger students will mirror their role models actions in order to fit in with a desired group.
Even if alcohol consumption goes against an individuals beliefs, they may drink just to fit in and not be the outcast.
Older students or individuals with a strong personality may not be as susceptible to change because they are firm in their beliefs and who they are.
Extroverted, more social personalities have more affect on the group because they are sometimes the leaders and viewed as the role model.
Incorrect norms could have an influence an individuals drinking behavior because they think certain behaviors are "normal and expected"
Factors that give students a false perception about college drinking are social media, glorified drinking scenes in movies, and personal actions. (Those who drink are more likely to believe everyone else does as well.)
Capone, C., Wood, M.D., Borsari, B., & Laird, R.D., (2007). Fraternity and Sorority Involvement, Social Influences, and Alcohol Use Among College Students: A prospective examination. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(3),316-327. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.21.3.316
Lee-Zorn. C., Buhrow Jr., W., & Vicario, B. (2012). Is Conformity A Mediating Variable on Increased Risk- Taking Behavior Across Years of Membership in the Greek System?. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 3(1),43. Retrieved from http://www.jsrp.ro
Wanted to understand the mind of the college students better and figure out the reasoning for why many of my friends drink alcohol in certain social situations.
Why I chose this topic...
Poor Decisions?
alcohol consumption directly impacts a person's intention to have unsafe sex
drinking and driving
missing classes/being late
overall poor judgment
What are the Health Effects?
liver disease, heart disease, sleep disorders, depression, stroke, bleeding from the stomach, sexually transmitted infections, and cancer
Prevention programs
face-to-face and electronic
Living-learning programs
room checks
bag checks
The Growing Problem
4 out of 5 college students drink alcohol
half of the students who drink also binge drink
Binge drinking- drinking lots of alcohol in a short span of time, drinking to get drunk or drinking to feel the effects of alcohol.
National institute on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. (2013).http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications
Goţia, S., Goţia, S., & Gurban, C. (2013). Nutrition, coffee, alcohol consumption in students' life style. Palestrica Of The Third Millennium Civilization & Sport, 14(1), 7-11.
Naimi, T. S., & Nelson, T. F. (2011). Toward a safer drinking environment for youth and adults. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(5), 404-405. doi:10.3109/16066359.2011.594529
O’Reilly, J., (2011, December 22). Alcohol can lead to unsafe sex; it’s official. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-12/w-acl120811.php
Rettner, R., (2013 January 22). Drinking doesn’t lead to a better night’s sleep. Live Science. Retrieved from http://www.livescience.com/26489-alcohol-sleep.html
Longerbeam, S. D., Inkelas, K., & Brower, A. M. (2007). Secondhand Benefits: Student Outcomes in Residence Halls With Living-Learning Programs. Journal Of College & University Student Housing, 34(2), 20-30.
Linden, A. N., & Lau-Barraco, C. (2013). Depressive symptomology and alcohol use among college students: the role of perceived drinking norms. Mental Health & Substance Use: Dual Diagnosis, 6(4), 303-314. doi:10.1080/17523281.2012.739193
What Is One Drink?"(Photography). (2013). December 12, 2013. Retrieved from http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/alcohol,_tobacco,_&_other_drugs/alcohol/alcohol_&_your_body.php
DeAstis, R. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.codcourier.org/2013/04/22/the-freedom-to-be-intoxicated-drinking-in-college-is-expected-but-is-it-leading-to-a-dangerous-future/
Protective factors
Support from family
Strategies to help cope with situations
Why Do College Students Drink?
to be socially accepted
the new environment/freedom
peer pressure
Parental Influence
oftentimes supply alcohol
when parents consume alcohol, it makes it more likely that their children will
a study showed that divorce and alcohol problems in parents can double the likelihood of alcohol dependence in their children as students
According to Naimi and Nelson (2011 October), "it is crucial to acknowledge that youth drinking behaviors are driven by adults: adults provide most alcohol consumed by youth: adults model normative behavior for youth at home and in public: and adults create and/ or accede to the alcohol policy environment in which they live" (p.1).
alcohol poisoning
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, "alcohol poisoning occurs when there is so much alcohol in the bloodstream that areas of the brain controlling basic life support functions—such as breathing, heart rate, and temperature control begin to shut down" (2013, p.1).
a study found that only 1 in 3 students could correctly identify all 6 signs of alcohol poisoning
Towson University
"The counseling center has various resources to help students struggling with suicidal thoughts as well as for other students to help support peers with these struggles. Among some of those services/programs are the Suicide Tracking System used by clinicians and other outreach programs"(S. Graham, personal communication, November 15, 2013).
The Brain
alcohol can interrupt brain development, affecting decisions that are made later in life. It slows down a person's ability to think, react, and make decisions.
Alcohol Use Disorders
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, “more than 150,000 students develop an alcohol-related health problem and between 1.2 and 1.5 percent of students indicate that they tried to commit suicide within the past year due to drinking or drug use” (2013, p.1).
Why I Chose This Topic?
I am a new college student who is now surrounded by this environment and I was wondering why my peers were so consumed by this.
How it Relates to TSEM
relational- drinking is done in a social atmosphere in college usually, where students try to make friends
physical- has damaging health affects
emotional- sometimes people use alcohol to cope with things, then leading to addiction
Students are not very educated on alcohol poisoning. Only one in three students could correctly identify all six signs of alcohol poisoning
A different thought
- The ability to "think divergent", which is the ability to come up with several solutions to one problem
-Active/racing thoughts
Moods Swings
-Normal Emotional States
-Depression States
-Manic/Hypomanic States

Emotional Episodes are different lengths for each individual
Two Worlds
-Another reason why Bi-Polar people are creative is because they see the world through two different lenses. One world is depressive and the other is manic so they can come up with different ways of thinking to solve problems based on their emotional state.
-Dopamine: "Happy chemical"
-Is rapidly released during manic states
-Creates an "addiction" or obsession to what ever project the person is working on that is why they cant stop
-Mental health is one of the most important aspects to keeping an individual healthy because it affects all aspects of our life. If we are not thinking clearly than we can not preform well in any other area of our life. If mental health is left untreated it can cause problems in our relational wellness, spiritual wellness, physical wellness, emotional wellness, financial wellness, vocational wellness, environmental wellness and intellectual wellness.
People with mental disorders usually have a negative stigma to them in society and I wanted to shed a positive light that not all mental illnesses are negative to ones health. People with Bi-Polar disorder tend to be very smart and lead successful lives do to their gifts of seeing the world differently.
Castle, Lana R.
Finding Your Bipolar Muse: How to Master Depressive Droughts and Manic Floods and Access Your Creative Power.
New York: Marlowe &, 2006. Print.
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, "“Binge drinking means drinking so much within about 2 hours that blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels reach 0.08g/dL. For women, this usually occurs after about 4 drinks, and for men, after about 5”(p.1).
There was a study conducted in 2013 that suggests, “youths drink alcohol to help their shyness, to escape from their own inhibitions and consider it a method of being accepted in a group. The main occasions of alcohol consumption were social events (67%) and going out with friends (61%)” (Gotia, Gotia, Gurban, p.1).
According to O’Reilly, “a new study has found that alcohol consumption directly impacts a person's intention to have unsafe sex. In other words, the more you drink, the stronger becomes your intention to engage in unsafe sex” (2011, p.1).
Participation in Sex
Unsafe sex is a growing danger for students and oftentimes students do not even remember if they had consent to have sex or not. According to the National Institute of Health, “each year an estimated 400,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 have unprotected sex, and more than 100,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report having been too intoxicated to know if they consented to having sex” (National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, p.2).
How it Affects Sleep
Some students decide to consume alcohol at night and then they do not get good sleep and this could affect their grades
There was a study about how alcohol affects "deep sleep."
"Sleep disruption, or waking after falling asleep, increased during the second half of the night, the researchers found. In addition, moderate doses (2 to 4 drinks) and high doses (more than 4 drinks) of alcohol reduced overall rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the night. REM sleep is a stage of sleep during which dreams occur, and is thought to be important for memory" (2013, p.1).
Living Learning Programs
These programs are extremely beneficial:
“These secondhand benefits include perceiving their residence hall climates as more socially supportive and having a greater number of positive diversity interactions. Generally, the more L/L students there were in a residence hall building, the greater the benefit to non-L/L students” (Longerbeam, Inkelas, Brower, 2013, p.7).
students can relate to each other
Prevention Programs
According to Linden and Lau-Barraco, “To minimize alcohol-related harms among college student drinkers experiencing depressive symptoms, secondary prevention programs that aim to correct normative perceptions may be beneficial” (2013, p.1).
give guidance about consuming alcohol from a real person (students can develop a relationship with the leader)
give awareness and can connect emotionally with a person
students do not have to be embarassed
they can do it whenever they want
A standard alcoholic beverage consists of either 12 oz. of beer, 5 oz. of wine, or 1.5 oz. of hard liquor. “According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), about four out of five college students drink alcohol. About half of college students who drink, also consume alcohol through binge drinking” (DeAstis, 2013, p.1).
A Standard Drink
What is "One Drink?" (Photograph) (2013). December 12, 2013. Retrieved from http://brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/alcohol,_tobacco,_&_other_drugs/alcohol/alcohol_&_your_body.php
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