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Industrialization (Compare/Contrast 1st and 2nd I.R.)

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Mandi Nishimori

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Industrialization (Compare/Contrast 1st and 2nd I.R.)

• Transition from hand and home production to new manufacturing processes that used machinery

• Date range: about 1760 – 1820/1840.

• almost every aspect of daily life was influenced

Industrialization
• Began in Britain
• Going through a commercial revolution
• British was expanding their power as a world power
• founding colonies in the Americas and Asia, etc.
• British trade increased greatly and the home systems (guild systems) couldn’t keep up with it
• 17th and 18th centuries- British had scientific and intellectual revolutions (ex. Newton, Boyle, and Locke)
• These revolutions lead to a better understanding of the world and they wanted to work towards better and more efficient ways of doing things

Background
Britain had several main aspects that allowed for industrialization:
Why Industrialization began in Britain
• domestic system of production was created earlier
• This system was called the “putting out system” where raw materials were delivered to homes, the people would hand make goods and then the businessmen would then sell them
• This couldn’t keep up with the increased trade so the factory system was produced which led to much faster production

Creation of a factory system
Industrialization (Compare/Contrast 1st and 2nd I.R.)
Mandi Nishimori
P.2B

Money to invest :
the commercial revolution made merchants rich so they had the money to invest in factories
Colonies:
with their expansion they had many colonies where they could get raw materials and expand their markets for manufactured goods
Geography:
access to ports
Raw materials:
coal and iron are the main ones
Work force:
many people lost their small farms so people moved to the cities to work in factories
Development of marine trade:
opened trade with other countries and transportation of goods to and from the colonies
Ist and 2nd Industrial Revolutions
1st Industrial Revolution
• 1750-1870 in England, America, Belgium and France
• Textile industry (one of the 1st to be industrialized);
influences from Asia and India
• Machines instead of human labor- development of factories
• Energy source from water and steam
• Fundamental changes in agriculture
• Steam engines- replaced water wheels that used to power factories;
this led to relocation of many factories to be closer to coal and iron
mines
• Increased use of coal and iron increased its production
• Henry Bessemer (1856) developed the Bessemer process
which mass produced steel, one of the most important metals
• Transportation- trains, steamboats , railroads
• Communications through telegraph which lead to telephones
eventually
• Printing revolution

2nd Industrial Revolution
• 1970- 1960
• Spread to Germany, japan, Russia
• Electricity becomes the primary source of power
• Mass production of consumer goods
• Electronics- electric lights, radios, fans, television)
• led to electrical industries

Industrialization in America
Industrialization moves to America
• start of the American Industrial Revolution is often attributed to Samuel Salter who opened the first industrial mill in the United States in 1790
• his design was very similar to the British model

Post Civil War
• After Reconstruction, the nation turned its efforts toward economic recovery and expansion
• America had an abundant supply of natural resources, such as coal and oil, which encouraged investment.
• Entrepreneurs looked for new investment opportunities in the United States and put money into the work of mechanics and engineers so they could develop more efficient ways of mass-producing consumer goods.
• New forms of factory organization allowed business owners to achieve economies of scale
• Economies of scale allowed business owners to specialize in the production of goods and manufacture them in large quantities to distribute throughout the nation or export abroad.
• Industrial profits rose.
• a system of transcontinental railroads was created
• a communication network of telegraph and eventually telephone lines went up
• quality of life was greatly improved through inventions such as refrigerator

Formation of large buisnesses was due to:
• Improved production methods: machines worked much faster than humans, also organized labor sped up production
• Development of new products: typewriter (1867), telephone (1876), electric light (1879) etc.
• Natural resources : water to power industrial machines, forest timber for wood products, and a lot of iron and coal
• Growing population: more than 25 million immigrants entered US between 1870-1916
• Distribution and communication: American railway became a national transport system in the late 1800s, worlds first transcontinental railway system
• Economic growth : due to the railways, businesses could transport materials in short time
• Communication helps the economy :big businesses need easy communication which was possible with the telephone and telegraph
• Investment and banking : businesses prospered which made some people eager to invest
• New banks :banks make loans to the businesses which helped finance the nation’s economic growth

Effects of Industrial growth on american society
Pros
• Cities grew largely
• Frontier life was ending in the west
• America became more involved in foreign affairs becoming a world power and building up military strength
• Immigration increased greatly
• Women become involved In society: form reform societies for improved working conditions for industrial labor and the idea that women should just be at home becomes weaker

Cons
•distinct contrast between the rich and poor created discontent and trigger reform movements
•growth focused mostly on the north so the south still struggled economically despite their efforts
• Industrial labor was not unregulated and could be dangerous
• Wages weren’t always fair so workers went on strikes

Conclusion
Industrialization is a social and economic change that transformed our country into the advanced industrial country that it is today. The first industrial revolution that began in Britain provided major advancements mostly due to the use of water power. Eventually Industrialization would spread to America and the second Industrial Revolution would make advancements due to electricity. After the civil war, went through many changes to make it into the industrial society it is today.
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