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Sports Comm - Swim

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Jessica Han

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Sports Comm - Swim

Body Image Issues in Sport Outline of Presentation History of Swimming
Theory of Sport: Analysis of Swimming
Interviews
Body Image and Eating Disorders
Nationality/Skepticism
Aging/Burnout
Conclusion Lean Build Sports Cross Country
Gymnastics
Swimming
Diving
Figure Skating Univ. of Western Aus. Study- Byrne and McLean(2000) Elite Athletes: Effects of Pressure to be Thin FEMALES: Team Speedo Gonzales Swimming The earliest physical evidence of swimming found in southwestern Egypt in “Cave of Swimmers.”
Dated to Stone Age (approximately 7,000 years old)
Figures appearing to be depicting a variant of the breaststroke/dog paddle

Written references date back to 2000 BC
Bible, Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey

Started as a form of relaxing and cleansing
Early Greeks built swimming pools

Also thought to have been used in battle
Battle of Salamis 480 BC – Greeks prevailed due to their solid ability to swim Origin Swimming as survival/necessity
First book written about swimming was to reduce the dangers of drowning
Colymbetes, written by Nicolas Wynman in 1539
Japanese required it to be part of school curriculum
The first national swimming organization formed in 1603
In Japan by Emperor Go-Yozei
In 1908 formed the world swimming association (FINA)
Began as open water swimming
In 1875, Mathew Webb was the first to swim across the English Channel
At first Olympics men competed in the Mediterranean
A complete timeline can be found at faculty.deanza.edu Middle Ages- 19th century Competitive swimming is at least as old as 36 BC
Japanese held the first known swimming races
The origin of modern swimming is thought to have been begun by the English.
Built indoor pools and schools dedicated to teaching swimming
By 1880 there were over 300 swimming clubs in England
Increase in clubs --> naturally increased competition
Swimming became an Olympic sport in 1896
Wasn’t until 1912 Olympics that women were allowed to participate
Since then swimmers and coaches began experimenting with new techniques to attempt to be faster  different style strokes History of Competitive
Swimming One of the most popular recreational activities in the world
People of all ages can participate
Vary little equipment involved

Popular form of exercise
All-around body developer
Particularly useful in therapy, physically handicapped persons, and elderly

Swimming is the third most-watched sport in the Olympic Games
Second largest number of events

Going back to open water swimming roots
In 1998, Benoît Lecomte swam across Atlantic Ocean in 72 days
South Africa’s Midmar Mile race had 17,000 entries – setting a record for open water events
In 2008, added 10k open water marathon to Olympic Games Swimming Today Evolution of
Swimming “the propulsion of the body through water by combined arm and leg motions and the natural flotation of the body.”

Recreational, Competitive, Exercise, and Lifesaving

Large variety of Strokes:
Front crawl/Free style, butterfly stroke, breaststroke, dog paddle, backstroke, sidestroke, etc.

Multiple activities that involve swimming
Diving, surfing, synchronized swimming, underwater diving, water polo, triathlons, etc. What is
Swimming? Normal Build Sports hockey
volleyball
football
tennis
baseball/softball Sport Type Matters! For the professional swimmer...EVERY season is swimsuit season Being "in shape" is important to most all sports but to what degree is low body fat perceived is essential to optimum performance? Anorexia, Bulemia, ED-NOS Thin build sport: 15% + 16% ED-NOS
Normal build sport: 2% +7% ED-NOS
Non-athletes: 1% +5% ED-NOS Males: Thin build sport: 5% (1%Ed-NOS)
Normal build sport: 0%
Non-Athletes: 0% Why Swimming is Particularly Vulnerable Swimming has its own set of risk factors. 2007 Study summary
1.The belief among swimmers and coaches that lower body weight and body fat leads to improved swimming times.

2.Skimpy swim team uniforms.

3.Weight status and fluctuation awareness from teammates.

4.Body scrutiny from spectators.

5.The sense that lighter swimmers have a performance advantage. "There are intense weight pressures in swimming" Professionals Who Have Struggled Cultural Differences: Germany vs. America
Aging: Why and when did they start their swimming careers?
Why did they end their competitive careers?
Is it a passion they still enjoy?
Training schedules?
In-group vs. Out-group? Theory of Sport: Analysis of Swimming Interview with Professional Swimmers Robbi: Professional Swimmer, Germany Christea: Competitive Swimmer, USA Billings 2010: The prevalance of skepticism among spectators We believe "the sprinter who could not possibly be that fast must be taking steroids" "The tennis contest must be fixed" Or, "the officials must be getting paid off" "Sports is a major unifying cultural factor in our nation" (Giles, 2/27/2013) "International sports competitions bring about a sense of shared experience, sense of purpose, and international unity" (Tomlinson & Young, 2006) Women's 2011 World Soccer Cup played to provide relief for Japan, recovering from March 11th earthquake & tsunami Sometimes GOOD: Sometimes BAD: "Conditioning citizens in ways that blunt democratic expression and neutralize dissent" (Butterworth, 2012) The Olympic Games Provides athletes the chance to attain national, and sometimes international fame Games also give the opportunity for the host city and country to display themselves to the world Olympic rings represent the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, America, Asia, Oceania, Europe) Olympic Creed: Says "the most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take part" "Just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the struggle" So... we are ALL winners! Then, what about Ye Shiwen? Ye Shiwen in London 2012 Olympics - Broke the WR in 400m Individual Medley, beating her own PR by at least 5 seconds - Sparked huge wave of accusations and controversy US coach John Leonard described her performance as "disturbing" "History in our sport will tell you that every time we see something unbelievable, history shows us that it turns out later there was doping involved" Ye Shiwen denied allegations, telling reporters: "My results come from hard work and training, and I would never use any banned drugs. The Chinese people have clean hands" The Results? - British Olympics chairman stated that Ye Shiwen was clean on drug tests, and that she "deserved recognition for her talent" So, was this targeted skepticism? Emphasis on Winning Maybe, Maybe Not Chinese athletes underwent nearly 100 drug tests since arriving in London, and were all clean Emphasis on Extrinsic Rewards Amount of Bureaucratization BUT, Chinese were involved in doping scandals in 1990s Doping in China Seven Chinese swimmers tested positive in 1994 Four Chinese swimmers failed pre-tournament drug tests before 1998 Word Championships in Australia - Chinese officials insist they since have cleaned up the sport BUT, earlier this year, another 16 yr old swimming prodigy, Li Zhesi, failed a drug test. Merely skepticism? Or being a sore loser? Dick Pound, International Olympic Committee: "Nobody's ever seen somebody swim that fast before. You expect that to be an occurrence at an Olympic Games. "With all the suspicions about drug use throughout sport, when someone is really, really spectacular, the first thing you do after you see that performance is say, 'hmm, I wonder.' " How Robbi and Christea met:
set up by Brad Hering (swim coach of 2012 Olympic medalist Breeja Larson) World record for butterfly 1982&1983
All American, USA national team, set for Olympics in 1984 Biggest cultural difference in competition level: No collegiate sports in Germany "The best my body has ever looked. But the training and pressure was insane."
-- Robbi Chinese Doping Scandals Four Chinese swimmers failed pre-tournament drug tests before 1998 World Championships in Australia Chinese officials say they have since cleaned up the sport, BUT earlier this year, another 16-yr old prodigy, Li Zhesi, failed a drug test. We could just be sore losers Hundley & Billings (2010):
"What happened was an attempt at image restoration not only for a golf team (and in this case, a swim team), but for a belief in American dominance as a superior within modern sport!" "money, power, and prestige" Mass media goes hand in hand with sports
Sports are no longer just for fun, but rather, seen as a source of income
Athletes are financially dependent on the sport "loss of control by the athletes and the gain of control by adults or owners" Fan loyalty
Specializations, rules, documents, hierarchy of authority is present Rules: False start = Disqualification
Water temperature between 25ºC and 27ºC Phelps recognized as one the most decorated Olympian of all time
Pressure to get gold
Backlash from his loss against fellow US swimmer Ryan Lochte
Retirement due to the "emphasis on winning"? female athletes=group most at risk for EDs especially if sport of choice "thin build" Do society's body image pressures increase in the athletic world? What role does gender and sport type play? Top 5 Stressors: CONCLUSION: The Strong Finish >> Swimming is more relevant now than ever as a NATIONAL sport - As the 3rd most watched Olympic Sport - With sponsored swimmers - And Michael Phelps' legacy and retirement WHO WILL BE THE NEXT PHELPS? burnout-“a psychological, emotional, and at times physically withdrawal from a formerly pursued and enjoyable activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction”

maximum age of an Olympic swimmer
is 44 years old


Gatta, Benelli, & Ditoilo (2006)- study examined swimmers between the ages of 50 and 90

Findings showed:
speed- decreased as age increased
stroke frequency- declined after age 70 stroke length- decreased until age 70
Aging/Burnout http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBY-1o9b-s8 Competed in his 1st Olympics at age 15

Has won 22 medals
-18 gold
-2 silver
-2 bronze

In 2001, he set the world record in the 200-meter butterfly and became the youngest male swimmer in history to set a world swimming record
In 2003, at age 17 he set five world records
Announced his retirement last year at age 27 Michael Phelps burnout-“a psychological, emotional, and at times physically withdrawal from a formerly pursued and enjoyable activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction”

maximum age of an Olympic swimmer
is 44 years old


Gatta, Benelli, & Ditoilo (2006)- study examined swimmers between the ages of 50 and 90

Findings showed:
speed- decreased as age increased
stroke frequency- declined after age 70 stroke length- decreased until age 70
Aging/Burnout
Aging/Burnout Michael Phelps burnout-“a psychological, emotional, and at times physically withdrawal from a formerly pursued and enjoyable activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction”

maximum age of an Olympic swimmer
is 44 years old


Gatta, Benelli, & Ditoilo (2006)- study examined swimmers between the ages of 50 and 90

Findings showed:
speed- decreased as age increased
stroke frequency- declined after age 70 stroke length- decreased until age 70
Aging/Burnout http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBY-1o9b-s8 Competed in his 1st Olympics at age 15

Has won 22 medals
-18 gold
-2 silver
-2 bronze

In 2001, he set the world record in the 200-meter butterfly and became the youngest male swimmer in history to set a world swimming record

In 2003, at age 17 he set five world records

Announced his retirement last year at
age 27 Michael Phelps Skepticism in Sports - People just doubt great athletes!
- Or we Americans have too much pride to lose unfairly
- Results in external attribution! >> Reasonable doubt - 16 yr old swimmer Two Conclusions: Kim Hoang Nguyen, Kathryn Nemmers, Sophia Radchik, Daisy Stelzer, Jessica Hahn, Laura Newton
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