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Churches of Christ

Analysis of CoC performance management system against best practice.

Aaron Howell

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of Churches of Christ

Performance and reward
7013 EHR

Aaron Howell
Joanne Robertson
Kathryn Hardman
Maree Gray
Megan Yu Hsin Chang
Rita Beneditti

Performance management system of Church of Christ Care
Performance appraisal of administration staff in the aged care division
Comparision to Pulakos Model (2009)
Conclusions Who we are Group of mainstream Christian churches

providing not-for-profit community services

130 years in the community, more than 45,000 people involved

200 services in more than 100 communities and over 3000 employees Values
Christian compassion and social justice
Valuing staff, clients and stakeholders
Open and honest communication
Continuously improving
Responsibility and accountability
Empowered teams
Mutual trust and respect Step 4 Performance
management cycle
(Pulakos 2009) VS.
Churchs of Christ performance
management cycle Performance discussions that are delivered in a positive manner and provide constructive feedback can deliver exceptionally successful results that develop motivation, increase learning and help resolve problems at work (London, 2003, cited in Kurtulus, 2011)

Any effective performance management system should have defined written policies and procedures with specific directives to ensure that the system is formalised. (Caruth & Humphreys, 2008)

Depending on the characteristics of the individuals concerned and the specific circumstances it has been debated that there is “no best way” to handle an appraisal discussion (Klein & Snell, 1994). Step 2 Managers and Employees set objectives and behavioral expectations There are strong organisational justice arguments for employee viewpoints to be incorporated in performance management systems (Simmons, 2004).

Performance goals should be S.M.A.R.T and challenging and developed jointly by employees and supervisors (Singh, 2012). Performance management systems Step 3 Ongoing performance discussions Performance appraisal discussion should be conducted frequently with yearly appraisals being the minimum (O'Sullivan, 2009).

Performance management is a continual process of discussions between employees and supervisors that requires ongoing feedback, assessments and training and development forecasting that link to performance expectations (Gliddon, 2004) Employees input on performance Involvement in the appraisal process allows employees to express their opinions (Roberts, 2003).

Newer generations entering the workforce are demanding ongoing and instant feedback, favouring this above increased monetary rewards. (Conrad & Matuson, 2009) Step 5 Knowledgeable raters provide input on performance Employees are prone to accept performance review outcomes, including adverse feedback, if they have confidence in the fairness of the appraisal process (Roberts, 2003)

The theory is that raters who have no involvement with the employee would have no motive to provide higher ratings than warranted by the employees’ performance (Scotter, Moustafa, Burnett & Michael, 2007) Appraisal sessions can provide forums where employees needs and emotions are freely discussed when the employee is confident that supervisors will be dependable in their behaviour and supply open and honest answers (Saundra & Baldwin, 2001)

Employee performance information should be collected efficiently and utilising an array of different sources (Gliddon, 2004) Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Recommendations and Conclusion References Questions Direct supervisor rates performance Formal review sessions Training is a core process to ensure the effectiveness of the performance management system (Caruth & Humphreys, 2008)

Performance appraisal feedback sessions should be conducted in private and away from external disruption (Gliddon, 2004) Pay discussions The connection between individual performance and increased monetary reward is assumed to lead to increased individual performance (Prowse & Prowse, 2009)

Employee remuneration should be made up of base pay and some pay that is at risk. If achieving excellence is the goal the at risk pay should be linked to performance (Service & Loudon, 2010) Performance
management cycle
(Pulakos 2009) VS.
Churchs of Christ performance
management cycle Caruth, D. L., & Humphreys, J. H. (2008). Performance appraisal: essential characteristics for strategic control. Measuring Business Excellence, 12(3), 24-32. doi: 10.1108/13683040810900377
Conrad, S., & Matuson, R. (2009). FEEDBACK LOOP. Mechanical Engineering, 131(8), 24-25. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/230181696?accountid=14543
Gliddon, D., G. . (2004). Effective Performance Management Systems. Performance Improvement, 43(9), 27-34. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/237236310?accountid=14543
Klein, H. J., & Snell, S. A. (1994). The Impact Of Interview Process And Context On Performance Appraisal Interview Effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 160-175. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40604018
Kurtulus, K. (2011). Performance Feedback: Individual Based Reflections and the Effect on Motivation. Business and Economics Research Journal, 2(4), 115-134. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/905189680?accountid=14543 O'Sullivan, S. L. (2009). International Performance Appraisals: A Review of the Literature & Agenda for Future Research. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 14(2), 171-180. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/222859153?accountid=14543
Prowse, P., & Prowse, J. (2009). The dilemma of performance appraisal. Measuring Business Excellence, 13(4), 69-77. doi: 10.1108/13683040911006800
Roberts, G. E. (2003). Employee performance appraisal system participation: A technique that works. Public Personnel Management, 32(1), 89-89. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/215943355?accountid=14543
Saundra, J. R., & Baldwin, N. J. (2001). Is anybody listening? Performance evaluation feedback in the U.S. Air Force. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 29(1), 160-176. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/206653109?accountid=14543 Schraeder, M., Becton, J. B., & Portis, R. (2007). A Critical Examination of Performance Appraisals: An Organization's Friend or Foe? The Journal for Quality and Participation, 30(1), 20-25,47. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/219158187?accountid=14543
Scotter, J. R. V., Moustafa, K., Burnett, J. R., & Michael, P. G. (2007). Influence of prior acquaintance with the ratee on rater accuracy and halo. The Journal of Management Development, 26(8), 790-803. doi: 10.1108/02621710710777282
Service, R. W., & Loudon, D. L. (2010). The "Is" Versus the "Should Be" of Performance Appraisals: Don't Confuse Them! Business Renaissance Quarterly, 5(3), 63-84. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/814814310?accountid=14543
Simmons, J. (2008). Employee significance within stakeholder-accountable performance management systems. TQM Journal, 20(5), 463-475. doi: 10.1108/17542730810898430
Singh, A. (2012). Performance Management System Design, Implementation and Outcomes in Indian Software Organizations: A Perspective of HR Managers. South Asian Journal of Management, 19(2), 99-120. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/docview/1032682733?accountid=14543 References References Step 1 Leaders set organisational, division and departmental goals Linking performance management criteria and management of appraisal data to the organisations business strategy in essential when designing the system (O'Sullivan, 2009)

Matching individual performance and goals to the organisational objectives is the ideal aim (Schraeder, Becton, & Portis, 2007) Thank you “Performance Management is a scientifically based, data-oriented management system. It consists of three primary elements-measurement, feedback and positive reinforcement. … they must be implemented systematically and in sequence.” (Aubrey Daniels, 2000) Performance Management Cascading goals
Clear line of sight between organisational and individual goals
Practical, attainable organisational goals

No-for-profit business = low cost leadership strategy Self Assessment

complete individual assessment
note areas of achievement
note incomplete activities Review job analysis & description
Note -
specific performance strengths
incompatible outcomes Manager/Supervisor
gather employee performance data
review previous appraisal
refer to informal reviews
review self assessment

Move into planning for the formal appraisal Performance management also incorporates motivation and a strategic focus
Performance management vs performance appraisal

Improve performance
Strategic alignment
Facilitate change
Enhance employee engagement Four sub sections Performance discussions include

qualifying period (probation) review
interim performance review
3 & 6 months
ongoing informal feedback discussions

where performance is below the required standard separate counseling and discipline discussions. Performance Review and Planning Meeting

Use Performance Review and Planning form
Meet one on one
discuss each Key Result Area
highlight and record performance improvement
highlight and record performance development areas
agree on future performance plan
determine specific training requirements
discuss personal career goals
set date for next review
make final comments on review form and sign-off
update the Aurion System The objectives must be:
time related
focused on a result, not an activity To ensure validity and reliability performance standards must be clear and specific (Roberts, 2003) Employees prepare personal goals and objectives, jointly discussed and agreed upon by employee and supervisor The Performance Management System is not related to pay levels for Administration Officers.

The Performance Management System is used to identify promotion and succession planning opportunities

The Performance Management System may identify additional training needs Step 8 - HR decisions are made in relation to pay and rewards
Performance appraisals are not linked to financial remuneration Graphic Rating Scale
evaluating up to 7 criteria
rating of 1-5, Excellent through Poor

Used to indicate how performance may be improved Review most recent performance review
last review goals
performance progress Multi Source feedback Vision
Bring the light of Christ into communities Recommendation
Employees should be allowed more freedom in goals and objectives to allow greater job satisfaction, increased self efficacy and improved self confidence. Recommendation
Some part of the financial remuneration should be based on performance. (P4P) Common objectives include:

Efficient production
Cost control / economies of scale
Standardisation of processes / quality / compliance
Quantitative key performance indicators
Long term commitment Step 1 - Leaders set goals
Cascading goals not communicated throughout the orgnaisation Recommendation
Organisational goals are cascaded down to the individual employee level Step 2 - Setting objectives & Behavioral expectations
Employees chosen goals and objectives are tightly controlled to align with organisational goals and objectives, a tell and sell approach Overall
Broad system
Extensive documentation
highly structured
Policy driven Recommendations Introduce cascading goals Allow more employee involvement in goal setting Introduce pay for performance
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