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CGHS Biology - Classification

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Sean Holder

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of CGHS Biology - Classification

Classification
Classification of Living Things - Taxonomy
Basics
Classify - to group things together based on similarities
Makes things easier to identify
makes things easier to compare
Timeline of Classification

384-322 BCE Aristotle
2 Kingdom Broad Classification
1735 - Carl Linnaeus
2 Kingdom Multi-divisional Classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order Family, Genus, Species
1950 - 5 Kingdom System
1990s - 6 Kingdom System
1990s - 3 Domain System
How would you classify this?
Praying Mantis
Green...but it moves

Aristotle's system was not
specific enough
Tools Used to Classify Organisms
1. Comparitive Anatomy
2. Biochemistry - DNA/RNA
3. Embryology - Developing Embryos
4. Molecular Basis - Cellular Structure
5. Phylogeny - location on evolutionary trees
Mnemonic Device - to help remember
Kingdom - King
Phylum - Phillip
Class - Came
Order - Over
Family - From
Genus - Greece
Species - Sneezing
Key Vocabulary
Taxon - a particular group with each category
Ex: Mammalia, carnivora
Binomial Nomenclature - 2 word scientific name
Uses Genus and Species
Genus is capitalized
species is italicized
Three Domain System
Eubacteria = common bacteria
Archaea = ancient bacteria

Eukaryota = everything else
Domains
Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Eubacteria)
Unicellular Prokaryotic (No Nucleus)
Ecologically Diverse - Live everywhere
Cell walls contain substance called - peptidoglycan
Autotroph and Heterotrophs
Domain Archaea (Kingdom Archaeabacteria)
Unicellular prokaryotes
Heterotrophs and autotrophs
Cell Walls without peptidoglycan
Lives in extreme environments
Key Point to remember
Domain - Eukarya
Contains Multiple Kingdoms:
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Eukaryotic - has a nucleus
single or multi-cellular
Most visible life
3 Domains contains 6 Kingdoms
Eubacteria
Archaeabacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Getting a little more specific
Kingdom Protista
Domain Eukarya
Eukaryotic
Majority are unicellular, but some are colonial or multicellular
Heterotrophs and autotrophs
May or may not have a cell wall
Extreme diversity!!!
Can be animal like, fungus like or plant like
Ex: Algae, Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Volvox
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Archeaebacteria
Kingdom Bacteria
Domain Bacteria
Unicellular Prokaryotic (No Nucleus)
Ecologically Diverse –
live everywhere!
Cell Walls contain substance called

Peptidoglycan
– special protein and sugar
Target of many Antibiotics ex. Strep Throat and Food Poisoning
Not all bad….used to turn grapes into wine
Ex. Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae
Domain Archaea
Unicellular Prokaryotes (No Nucleus)
Heterotrophs and Autotroph
Cells Walls without peptidogylcan
Live in Extreme environments like
those of early Earth
ex. Volcanic Hot Springs…..
some even live in your gut

Domain Eukarya
Eukaryotic; cell walls of
chitin.
Majority multicellular; few
unicellular.
Heterotrophs; feed on dead or decaying
organic matter. (Decomposer)
Examples: Mushrooms, yeast,
bread mold.

Kingdom Plantae
Domain Eukarya
Eukaryotic, multicellular,
cell walls of cellulose.
Autotrophs; photosynthesis
chloroplast.
Examples: Mosses, ferns, flowering plants, cacti.
Plants - Major Divisions
Vascular Plants and Non-Vascular Plants
Angiosperms (Flowering) vs. Gymnosperms (Non-Flowering)
Kingdom - Animalia
Domain Eukarya
Eukaryotic, multicellular,
no cell walls.
Heterotrophs
Examples: Sponges, worms,
insects, fishes, mammals, reptiles.
Extreme diversity is
found in this kingdom

Viruses -
What is a virus?
small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the cells of other organisms.
Viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope.
What can all viruses do?
REPRODUCE!!!
They can not reproduce on their own
Viruses require a HOST cell to infect and reproduce
HOST= another organisms cell

Bacteriophage = a virus that infects a bacteria
2 Types of Cycles
LYSOGENIC and LYTIC
Lytic Replication: virus injects genetic info inside host cell, replicates, and lyses (burst and kills) the host cell as viruses leave the cell particle .

ATTACH INJECT SYNTHESIZE LYSE



Lysogenic Replication: viral genetic info becomes incorporated with host cell. Viral genetic info is now replicated every time host cell makes new cell

Provirus
Viruses that use the lysogenic cycle
They incorporate themselves into the host DNA
Can replicate without lyses of the cell
Retroviruses are proviruses
HIV is an example a provirus

Takes its genetic information (RNA) and tricks the host manufacture its viral DNA.
Host then replicates its own as well as the retrovirus DNA
Oncogenic viruses will convert normal cells into tumor cells (Oncoviruses, Lentiviruses)
Retrovirus
No!!!
Viruses are being used for gene therapy.
Take the bad genetic info out of the virus and replace it with good genes and inject the virus into people that have defective genes.
Vaccinations- weaken or dead viruses are injected into you to promote immunity
Are all viruses bad?!?
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