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In Vitro Fertilization

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Alissa Das

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of In Vitro Fertilization

In Vitro Fertilization http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_BMxEpZExHGg/TH1ytmIR0dI/AAAAAAAAAB4/4fGzQfjGZMU/s1600/IVF+with+ICSI.jpg Introduction - Infertility also known as primary infertility
- Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)
- ARTs include: in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other similar procedures What is an
In Vitro Fertilization? -In vitro fertilization (IVF), is when a man’s sperm and the woman’s egg are combined within a laboratory dish
-The resulting embryo, is transferred into the woman's uterus
-Each attempt is called a cycle Who can benefit from an In Vitro Fertilization? - Less than 5% of infertile couples use IVF
- IVF is also used when men have low sperm counts
- Couples that can’t conceive and tried various methods may use IVF Factors to Consider with an In Vitro Fertilization
- Safety:
- Studies propose that in vitro fertilization is safe
- Other studies found a slightly increased risk of genetic disorders
- Difficult outcomes during pregnancy and the prenatal period are higher in pregnancies that resulted from IVF The In Vitro Fertilization Process Prior to the
IVF Procedure - Test such as transvaginal ultrasounds
- Oral contraceptive pills and leuprolide
- Medications such as gonadotrophins
- Blood tests are frequently taken to monitor hormone levels
- When the Follicles mature, the woman injects human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) Egg Retrieval and Fertilization - After the hCG injections are given, the egg retrieval procedure occurs 34 to 36 hours later
- On the other hand, the man provides a semen sample
- The sperm and egg are combined within a laboratory dish Embryo Transfer - Embryo transfer is scheduled 3 to 5 days after
- During this decision, the woman’s age and reproductive history are taken into consideration
- The embryo is then transferred into the uterus through the cervix with a catheter After Embryo Transfer - Luteal phase of the cycle
- The woman is given hormone progesterone (injection or suppositories)
- A pregnancy test, 2 weeks after the embryo transfer Risk of an In Vitro Fertilization -Uncommon risks include bleeding, infections and damage to the bowel or other organs
-Some medications used for stimulation can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
-Mild symptoms are bloating, mild pain or cramping and weight gain Success Rates According to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SART):
- 41-43% for women under age 35
- 33-36% for women age 35 - 37
- 23-27% for women ages 38 - 40
- 13-18% for women over age 41
Ectopic pregnancy occurs in approximately 3% to 5% of patients Cost of an In Vitro Fertilization - Between $7,750 - $12,250 CAD
- This is separated for $250 for the semen analysis, $2,500 - $7,000 for medication and $5,000 for the IVF itself
- In Ontario, the province will pay for three cycles of IVF
The cost of IVF across Canada:
IVF Cycle IVF+ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection)

Western Canada $ 4,400 – 8,000 $ 5,400 – 9,500

Ontario $ 4,500 – 7,000 $ 6,000 – 8,150

Quebec* $ 5,500 $ 7,000 – 8,000

Eastern Canada $ 5,400 – 5,925 $ 6,900 – 7,425 First IVF Baby -In Great Britain, July 25, 1978, Louise Joy Brown, was born
-After nine years of trying she was referred to Dr. Patrick Steptoe, in 1976
-Dr. Edwards mixed Lesley’s egg with John’s sperm and waited until the egg was fertilized Nadya Suleman (Octomom) - Nadya Suleman was one of many people that used IVF
- Her octuplets (8 children) were conceived by IVF performed by Dr.Kamrava
- Dr.Kamrava didn't inform her that a woman of her age should only have three implantations About Octomom Ethics for Nayda Suleman - Dr. Kamrava broke many medical ethical principles when performing Nadya Suleman's IVF procedure
- Autonomy
- Beneficence
- Non-Maleficence
- He did an act of omission (leaving something’s out) Fun Facts about IVF -Since the first IVF baby, more than 4 million babies have been born worldwide as a result of using in vitro fertilization

-IVF has reduced the number of tubal surgeries by 50%

-Fluid in your fallopian tubes reduces IVF success rates by about 50 percent Select Abortion
Canada vs United States - Some people use IVF to conceive more than one baby at a time in order to select the gender of their choice Canada: Abortion rates in 2010 had a total of 64,641 abortions that were performed

United States: About 10,113 abortions were performed in 2010 - Beneficence
- Non-Maleficence The ethical dilemmas
for Select Abortions: http://phojoe.com/images/new/forensic/Hands-Age-Progression.jpg - Age: Any woman that is still ovulating can try IVF http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/52683000/jpg/_52683450_p6800874-triplet_foetuses,_3-d_ultrasound_scan.jpg http://www.money-top10.com/Data/Sites/1/Money/Money%20Affilate.jpg - Multiple births - Cost http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/debeck_pt/science/images/labsafety.jpg http://jananamivf.com/ivf_images/image017.jpg http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/60984000/jpg/_60984029_dishstill.jpg http://www.babymed.com/sites/default/files/pregnancy_test_positive.jpg http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photo/_new/080718-louise-brown-baby-2p.grid-4x2.jpg http://blogs.mydevstaging.com/blogs/parents-news-now/files/2011/07/Octomom.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_tsT5cuOe_gs/SZR6N68ASEI/AAAAAAAAAYM/JUyomkYUGRs/s400/021209%2BNadya%2BSuleman%2BPregnant%2BBelly.jpg http://www.sodahead.com/entertainment/courteney-cox-still-loves-david-arquette-most-amicable-celeb-split/question-3441393/ Statistics Report - In Canada, the CBC’s Investigations Unit investigated 22 centers, 15 of which agreed to book an appointment for an ultrasound that would give a couple the gender of the fetus before 20 weeks of pregnancy By: Alissa Sukhu http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/anatomy/brightfieldgallery/images/mammaliangraafianfolicle40xsmall.jpg Embryonic stem cells from IVF embryos - Embryo stem cells are more adaptable because they are pluripotent stem cells, where as adult stem cells are limited
- Human embryonic stem cell can be used from embryos created through an IVF
- The remaining of the embryos are frozen, stored or thrown away
- Is it ethical to throw away the embryos rather than using them?
- People fight that embryos are people and they are not protecting the sanity of life by using them in stem cell research (Non-Maleficence)

“Every human being has a right to life.
A human embryo is a human being” - Peter Singer
Ethical Dilemmas http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Humanstemcell.JPG/300px-Humanstemcell.JPG
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