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WH1 Unit 2: Early River Civilizations
Transcript of WH1 Unit 2: Early River Civilizations
Division of labor
formal organization of humans
Complex, formal organization of humans
a society's way of producing & using resources
Types of Economies:
- custom, religion decides
- government decides
- individuals decide
SURPLUS leads to:
need for place to store surplus food
need for place to trade surplus food
time to develop new crafts (i.e. pottery)
cultural diffusion (exchanging ideas)
Solution: City = trade center
workers with special skills improve quality of work
"Artisans" - specialized workers that focus on one job
leads to cooperation on city projects
(laws, organized defense, public projects)
(difference between the wealthy & poor)
(means of trade)
write down records
Means they need a
to keep track of taxes, sales, dates, etc.
better way of doing things
requires fewer farmers
new tools (bronze, copper, tin)
Settling in one place
War over land
So where would you settle if you needed:
land to settle on
water for irrigation
fertile land for farming
a way to travel from place to place
It makes sense... One thing leads to another
...All are near rivers.
Farmers, unskilled workers
political unit with its own government
- belief in many gods (ex. Enlil is god of air & storms)
Believed gods looked & acted like people
(pyramid like temple) in center of city
Walls & fields around the city (protection from outsiders)
Priests are part of the upper class
1st to keep written records
= written language
At first used to keep records, then write the law, then create literature (ex. Epic of Gilgamesh)
Number system based on the # 60 (how we get our hours, minutes)
Advanced geometry (needed for irrigation systems)
Created the wheel, plow, weapons, pottery
Started a sewer system
Performed basic surgery
Traded wood & metals from SW Asia
Became a trade center
Akkad is a civilization that forms north of Sumer, led by
Sargon creates a permanent army & conquers Sumer -- creates
(different kingdoms and people under 1 ruler)
Decides to keep Sumerian culture (writing, power of priests, etc.)
Empire last for 140 years & leads to the spread of Sumerian culture
Amorite tribe led by
conquers Mesopotamia & starts the Babylonian Empire
Hammurabi is an awesome warrior & leader
Also adopts Sumerian culture (language, gods, power of priests)
He increases trade & wealth
He writes down the law & punishments -- called
(1st written laws)
Horse drawn Chariots
Mastered iron working
Trade across Mediterranean
Established Kingdom of Israel
Huge empire broken into 20 provinces led by
196 - If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
200 - If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
202 - If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
Epic of Gilgamesh
book of Mesopotamian myths that give us an idea of what life was like
River Civilization Review
1. Name the 5 traits of a civilization.
2. What is economy? What type of economy did early civilizations have?
3. What does a river provide for a civilization?
4. What 2 rivers surrounded the 1st civilization?
5. What is cuneiform?
6. What is the holy book of the Hebrew religion?
7. What are the Phoenicians known for?
8. What is a ziggurat?
9. What is the difference between polytheism and monotheism?
10. What were some of the accomplishments of the Persian Empire?
1. What is a city-state?
2. What does "extinct" mean?
3. How did Australopithecus get food?
4. Why did ancient civilizations change over time? (think about Sumer)
5. What was special about Homo Habilis?
6. What years are in the 12th century?
7. What is the significance of the Neolithic Revolution?
8. What is the barter system?
Unit 2 Vocabulary
What comes to mind when you think of
Once your group has finished with the reading, create 3 cause and effect conditions on the back page using the form below:
Warm Up - 7th Period
1. What does the word irrigation mean?
2. What are the stages of becoming a civilization?
3. What are the 5 characteristics of a civilization?
4. What do I need to do better during this unit to be successful?
5. What kind of activities help me learn best?
6. What does respect mean to me?
Geography of Mesopotamia