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WH1 Unit 2: Early River Civilizations

Mesopotamia
by

Deborah Dunsmore

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of WH1 Unit 2: Early River Civilizations

cluster of humans
May have:
Irrigation system
Division of labor
Simple Economy
formal organization of humans
May have:
More people
Diverse people
Complex economy
Complex, formal organization of humans
Economy:
a society's way of producing & using resources

Types of Economies:
Traditional
- custom, religion decides
Command
- government decides
Market
- individuals decide
SURPLUS leads to:
need for place to store surplus food
need for place to trade surplus food
time to develop new crafts (i.e. pottery)
cultural diffusion (exchanging ideas)
Solution: City = trade center
workers with special skills improve quality of work
"Artisans" - specialized workers that focus on one job
leads to cooperation on city projects
formal
religion
(values)
organized
government
(laws, organized defense, public projects)
social classes
(difference between the wealthy & poor)
advanced
economy
(means of trade)
Scribes
write down records
Means they need a
written language
to keep track of taxes, sales, dates, etc.
better way of doing things
requires fewer farmers

Examples
irrigation
new tools (bronze, copper, tin)
Settling in one place
+ agriculture
Surplus
Trade
Social Classes
Religion
War over land
So where would you settle if you needed:
land to settle on
water for irrigation
fertile land for farming
a way to travel from place to place
It makes sense... One thing leads to another
Earliest Civilizations:
1. Mesopotamia
2. Egypt
3. India
4. China
...All are near rivers.
Rulers,
priests, nobles
Merchants, artisans
Farmers, unskilled workers
Slaves
Fertile Crescent
Tigris River
Euphrates River
Mesopotamia
between rivers
Sumer
political unit with its own government
Polytheistic
- belief in many gods (ex. Enlil is god of air & storms)
Believed gods looked & acted like people
Ziggurat
(pyramid like temple) in center of city
Walls & fields around the city (protection from outsiders)
Priests are part of the upper class
1st to keep written records
Cuneiform
= written language
At first used to keep records, then write the law, then create literature (ex. Epic of Gilgamesh)
Number system based on the # 60 (how we get our hours, minutes)
Advanced geometry (needed for irrigation systems)
Created the wheel, plow, weapons, pottery
Started a sewer system
Performed basic surgery
Traded wood & metals from SW Asia
Became a trade center
Akkad is a civilization that forms north of Sumer, led by
Sargon
Sargon creates a permanent army & conquers Sumer -- creates
FIRST EMPIRE
(different kingdoms and people under 1 ruler)
Decides to keep Sumerian culture (writing, power of priests, etc.)
Empire last for 140 years & leads to the spread of Sumerian culture
Amorite tribe led by
Hammurabi
conquers Mesopotamia & starts the Babylonian Empire
Hammurabi is an awesome warrior & leader
Also adopts Sumerian culture (language, gods, power of priests)
He increases trade & wealth
He writes down the law & punishments -- called
Hammurabi's Code
(1st written laws)
Akkadians
Babylonians
Hittites
Assyrians
Chaldeans
Phoenicians
Hebrews
Persians
1st empire
Hammurabi's Code
Horse drawn Chariots
Mastered iron working
War society
King Ashurbanipal
Rebuild Babylon
King Nebuchadnezzar
Trade across Mediterranean
Develop alphabet
Practiced Judaism
Established Kingdom of Israel
Built roads
Huge empire broken into 20 provinces led by
satraps
Created money
282 Laws
196 - If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
200 - If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
202 - If any one strike the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.
Epic of Gilgamesh
book of Mesopotamian myths that give us an idea of what life was like
River Civilization Review
1. Name the 5 traits of a civilization.
2. What is economy? What type of economy did early civilizations have?
3. What does a river provide for a civilization?
4. What 2 rivers surrounded the 1st civilization?
5. What is cuneiform?
6. What is the holy book of the Hebrew religion?
7. What are the Phoenicians known for?
8. What is a ziggurat?
9. What is the difference between polytheism and monotheism?
10. What were some of the accomplishments of the Persian Empire?
Warm Up
1. What is a city-state?
2. What does "extinct" mean?
3. How did Australopithecus get food?
4. Why did ancient civilizations change over time? (think about Sumer)
5. What was special about Homo Habilis?
6. What years are in the 12th century?
7. What is the significance of the Neolithic Revolution?
8. What is the barter system?
Unit 2 Vocabulary
Delta
Pyramid
Old Kingdom
New Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
Mummification
Theocracy
Hyksos
Pharaoh
Papyrus
Hieroglyphics
Obelisk

Nile
Tigris
Euphrates
Indus
Chang River
Textbook
Page 33
Monotheism
Covenant
Hebrews
10 Commandments
Exodus
Torah

What comes to mind when you think of
Civilization?
Developing
Once your group has finished with the reading, create 3 cause and effect conditions on the back page using the form below:
Cause
Effect
Full transcript