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Daniel Hong

on 26 October 2015

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(Sitka Spruce)
Picea glauca
(Western Hemlock)
(Western Redcedar)
(White Spruce)
Thuja plicata
Tsuga heterophylla
Picea sitchensis
(Fragrant/Bog Labrador Tea)
Rhododendron groenlandicum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Gaultheria shallon
Vaccinium uliginosum
(Bog Blueberry)
(Bog Cranberry)
Polystichum munitum
(Sword Fern)
Blechnum spicant
(Deer Fern)
(Peat Moss)
Claopodium crispifolium
Schistostega pennata
(Goblin’s gold moss)
(Rough Moss)
The Sitka Spruce is a large coniferous evergreen tree, native to the west coast of North America and it's name comes from the community Sitka, Alaska. It commonly grows up to 70m tall, with it's base 2 m in diameter. This tree is used widely in and out of the native community. The natives use this tree from top to bottom. For example, the native uses it's roots for ropes, fishing lines, and twine to sew boxes and baskets. Today this tree is widely used by companies for construction, instruments, paper, etc.
5-7 cm long
Irregular toothed scales
Fun Fact :
During World War ll the light wood of the Sitka tree was used for the construction of the famous Mosquito Aircraft.
Brown or Purplish-Grey
Breaks up into small scales
Light green to bluish-green
1-3 cm long
Stiff and sharp
Arranged spirally
Two white lines of stomata on the upper and lower surface
Sharp and stiff
12-20 millimeters
Arranged spirally on on the twigs
Whitish Green
Foul smelling when young
Light brown to purplish
3-7 cm long
Slender and cylindrical
Scaly or flaky
Irregularly shaped scales
Gray-brown or ash-brown
This is younger tree, we couldn't reach the bigger one.
& Daniel Hong
Royce Malonzo
Daniel Hong
& Royce Malonzo
Fun Fact :
The White Spruce is also known as the Skunk Spruce because of the pungent smell that arises when you crush the needles together/ or break them.
The White Spruce is a large coniferous evergreen tree that normally grows up to 30 meters and can sometimes reach 40 meters with it's diameter reaching 1 meter. This specie is one of the native species to the Northern Temperate and Boreal Forest.The White Spruce is an important commercial tree because it yields great lumber, with long straight fibers which is sometimes exported to Japan to make Go-Boards as a substitute for the rare Kaya wood in Japan. In the community, the natives from the interior used a lot of White Spruce . For example, they used the bark for cooking pots and trays for collecting berries. They would use the gum as glue, and the saplings for snowshoe frames, and sometimes bows.
About 2 cm long
Greenish to reddish-purple
Slender and cylindrical
Hang from the end of branches
Nearly flat
Unequal in length
Irregularly Spaced
Dark brown to reddish brown
More furrowed in older trees
Moderately fissured (Split/Crack)
The Western Hemlock is a specie of Hemlocks native to the west coast of North America. This tree can grow 50–70 m tall and a diameter of 2.7 meters. Like most trees this tree is used by both the natives and industries. For example, natives would plant the Western Hemlock along river bank to reduce erosion. Industrially, this tree is harvested for timber and the paper productions. Also, this tree is harvest as an ornamental tree for large gardens.
Fun Fact:
Queen Victoria loved the tree's timber so much she requested it to be renamed Tsuga albertiana in honor of her husband.
1 cm long
Overlapping scales
Flattened braid
Flat sprays
Fun Fact:
This tree's leaves are actually anti-fungal which helps for skin and nail fungus.
Cinnamon Red
Long strips
The Western Redcedar is also an evergreen coniferous native to Western North America. The Western Red Cedar is a very large tree, range from 65-70 m tall and 3-4 m in truck diameter. This tree is very valued for it's appearance, aroma and it's resistance to decay. It it used by everyone for outdoor construction. For example, canoes, posts, decking, shingles, kayaks, etc. The natives widely used this tree for medicine as well.
The Sword Fern is an evergreen fern native to Western North America and is also known as the "King of Northwest Ferns". It can grow as tall as 50-180 centimeters tall. The Sword Fern is a very popular fern and can be found in big bundles. Having an abundance of sword fern, the natives have found ways to make them useful. For example, in the spring, some native tribes would roast the rhizomes over a fire and then peel and eat it which in fact could also helped cure diarrhea. To add on, the Sword Fern had another medical uses, such as helping with the pain of a sting from a stinging nettle or relieving a sore throat. The Sword Fern was also use for other projects for example, flooring, bedding, and was used as a protective layer in the traditional oven, storage boxes and on berry-drying racks.
Leathery and green
Pinnae are 1-15 cm long
Each pinna has a upward-pointing lobe (Sword Hilt) at the base
Pinnae edges are serrated with bristly tips
Produces light yellow spores
*Pinna - Leaflet
Fun Fact :
The women of Lummi would chew on the leaves of the Sword Fern during childbirth difficulties to help the child birth progress. NO IDEA HOW IT HELPS BUT I BET YOU DIDNT KNOW THIS FACT! OR MAYBE YOU DID.
Pojar, Jim, A. MacKinnon, and Paul B. Alaback. Plants of Coastal British Columbia: Including Washington, Oregon & Alaska. Vancouver: Lone Pine Pub, 1994. Print.

"Ministry of Forests, Lands & Natural Resource Operations - Province of British Columbia." B.C. Homepage - Province of British Columbia. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2015.

"Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.

"Borealforest.org." N.p., Web. 26 Oct. 2015.

And some other smaller individual sites........ I know I'm terrible

The Deer Fern is an evergreen fern native to Europe and Western North America. The Deer Fern can grow up to 1 m tall. This fern is often eaten by some as a hunger suppressant. Native Americans would tell their children to look for young Deer Ferns if they were lost so that they don't starve. Like the Sword fern you can roast the rhizomes and eat it too, but unlike the Sword Fern it doesn't help with diarrhea.The Deer Fern does however have some other medical capabilities, for example, the leaves could be used as medicine for skin sores. The roots of the Deer Fern was widely used by the Native Americans for medical purposes. This fern is also a very important plant not only to us but other species as well. For example, the Deer Fern is an important food source for animals such as the Columbian and Sitka back-tailed deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, Rocky Mountain elk, Roosevelt elk, moose , and the caribou in the winter.
Purplish-brown stripes
30-70 pinnae pairs
Pinnae 5 cm long and 3-7mm wide
Size of pinna reduces towards the top
Pinnae widely spaced and oblong
Fun Fact :
Deers often rub their antler stubs on the deer fern after their antlers have fallen off to heal the broken irritated skin. MAYBE THAT'S HOW THE FERN GOT IT'S NAME? Probably.
Bonus :
Bonus :
5-11 mm broad
Pale-pink to dark red
Appear oversized on plant
Deep pink
On a long, stem
Petals white or pink
Petals flexed backwards away from the stem
Up to 1 cm long
Green above
Dark blue-black berry
5-10 mm in diameter
Covered in waxy powder
White flesh
Pendulous (Hanging)
Pale pink
4-6 mm long
1-3 cm
2-15 mm wide
Firm and oval
Smooth edge
Rounded Apex
20-60 mm long
3-15 mm wide
Wrinkly top
Curling edges
Red-brown underneath
Very Fragrant
Grow in hemispherical clusters
Dropping clusters
Hairy capsules
5-7 mm long
White or pinkish
7-10 mm long
Oriented in one direction
5-10 cm long
Thick and shiny
Sharply and finely toothed
Green on the top
Reddish-blue to dark-purple
6-10 mm wide
Nearly sphe
Rough surface
The Bog Cranberry is a widespread throughout the cool temperate northern hemisphere. It is an indicator of moist or wet soils which are low in nitrogen. This plant along with it's family can survive in these kinds of conditions therefore they can survive in environments such as the bogs and the fens. In the past, American sailors would pack cranberries on their ships just like the British packed limes. These sailors ate a lot cranberries which prevented scurvy with it's supply of vitamin C. The natives however used cranberries long before the Europeans came, they used it as food, dye and medical uses. The natives would use cranberry juice as fabric dye to dye rugs, blankets, and clothing. They would use mashed cranberries to mix with deer meat to make pemmican which can be kept and stored for long periods of time.
Fun Fact :
During World War ll, American troops required about one million pounds of dehydrated cranberries a year. WHAT FOR? I DON"T EVEN KNOW!

The Bog Blueberry is a native flowering plant to the northern hemisphere. It also lives in peaty soils similar to the Bog Cranberry. The Bog Blueberry is the most popular wild-harvested fruit in the interior of Alaska. In Alaska, it is a traditional fruit and many people would harvest this plant and either eat the berries fresh or make them into jellies, jams, pies, juice, etc and they would have the flower and leaves dried for tea. In fact, many people collect the flower, leaves, and rhizomes for medical purposes because they all have medical properties in them. Not only do we like to eat the Bog Blueberry but Black Bears do too. It is one of the most important fruits to the Black Bear in the interior of Alaska during the months of July to September. The Bog Blueberry has no economic importance but it's cold hardiness, resistance to blueberry fungus, and late flowering make it more important because it will help with hybridizing with more economically important species.
This moss can be found on a variety substrata including logs, rocks, and tree trunks (especially Big Leaf Maples), and occasionally soil and concrete. It thrives in low-elevated areas usually with little sunlight forming moderately dense, dull, yellow-green mats over the substratum.
Leaf Structure
Fun Fact:
Blueberries along with other fruits and nuts can improve cognition, maintain brain function and possibly help treat brain disorders. EAT UP GUYS!!!
spirally arranged on lateral branches
become very deformed when dry
lanceolate in outline
The stem has a wide cortex surrounding central strand containing hydroids
The Labrador Tea is a flowering shrub with white flowers and evergreen leaves and it is found growing in the northern latitudes around the world. The Labrador Tea is often harvested for tea. For example, the Athabaskans, they boil the leaves as a beverage often even to this day. Many others would use the Labrador Tea for other uses as well other than drinking for example, people would boil the leaves and branches and then soak their meat in the decoction to spice their meat. Ironically, the Labrador Tea can make you sick sometimes, but it is used by many as a herbal tea for medical purposes. European settlers and traders valued this plant as tea. The Labrador Tea began to be more of a drink than a medicine when the Hudson's Bay Company introduced it as a tea rather than a medicine. For some people, the tea can cause drowsiness which could could be because of the toxic in the leaves but on the other hand, other feel no negative effects from the tea, in fact they even feel that the tea helps prevent drowsiness.
Fun Fact:
The Labrador Tea is actually seen as a rebellious tea because before the American Revolution when the even of the Boston Tea Party happened, Black Tea from the British was dumped into the sea and the Americans they started drinking Labrador Tea instead as a rebellious act.
The sphagnum moss, also called peat moss is a genus of approximately 120 species. Accumulations can retain and hold 16-26 times water as their dry weight. As it grows, it slowly spreads into drier conditions, forming larger peatlands, bogs, and blanket bogs.
used in first-aid dressing on wounds, as these mosses can absorb three times faster and can retain liquids better
said to have anti-bacterial properties
Natives as one of the first to use Sphagnum as diapers and napkins )still done in Canada
insulating material
Contains two kinds of cells; small, green, living cells (chlorophyllose cells), and large, clear, structural, living cells (hyaline cells)
Contains tightly arranged clusters of fascicles with two or three spreading branches and two to four hanging branches
The Goblin Moss is well-known for it luminescent glowing appearance in dark places. This is due to clear spherical cells in the protonema which is able to collect even the faintest light. The chloroplasts nearby, in turn, give off the greenish glow from the reflected light. This moss prefers damp mineral soils with indirect sunlight and can me found in China, Japan, Siberia, Europe, and North America.
Fun Fact : IT'S NOT A FACT GO MAKE SOME SALAL BERRY JAM!http://www.cavewomancafe.com/fruit/the-unsung-hero-the-salal-berry/
The Salal is a leathery-leaved shrub native to western North America. The Salal was a very important shrub for the Aboriginal people because it was a big part of their lives. The dark, juicy berries of the Salal was an important fruit for the Aboriginal people of the Northwest Coast. The Salal berries were eaten fresh as well as dried cakes. The Aboriginal people would normally mixed the Salal berries among other berries for trading or just to simply sweeten the other berries for jam. The berries were also used as a natural sweetener and a helper for different foods. Specifically, the Haida used the Salal berries to thicken salmon eggs. It is said that the Ditidaht would chew on the leaves as a hunger suppressant when they didn't have enough food. Leafy branches was used as flavouring for fish soup. Other than just edibles, the Salal was also used for medical purposes. For example. the leaves can be made into a poultice to treat insect stings or bites and can treat burns or sores. Salal leaves could also be used to lower bladder inflammation, treat diseases like heartburn, fever, cramping, and also used to reduce inflammation of the sinuses. Collectively, Salal leaves can help improve your immune system and the berries are loaded with vitamins and antioxidants that prevent degeneration and help us to live a long and sustaining life. Through the Salal the natives obtain 2 colours of dyes. For example, through the berry they can obtain purple dye and through infused leaves they can obtain greenish-yellow dye.
In addition, bogs, like other wetlands have anaerobic soil conditions. Peat moss can also acidify its surroundings by taking up cations, such as calcium and magnesium, and releasing hydrogen. Sphagnum moss can be found mainly in the Northern Hemisphere in peat bogs, coniferous forests, and moist tundras.
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