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Copy of AP Bio- Cell Cycle 1: Mitosis
Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Cell Cycle 1: Mitosis
In order to grow, cell production must be greater than cell death. In order to survive, the species must replace individuals. Cell division accomplishes these purposes. A dividing amoeba A dividing bone marrow cell A dividing sea urchin embryo The phases of a cell's life G1- growth
S- DNA replication
G2- preparation for division
M - Mitosis
G0- Non-dividing state (most cells in you) Chromosomes! Very tightly controlled (why?) Tightly coiled pieces of DNA that condense prior to division Remember! Prokaryotes only have one, circular chromosome.
Eukaryotes have many, linear chromosomes Most eukaryotic cells have 2 copies of every chromosome.
They form in attached, identical pairs.
Chromatid: 1 member of the pair
Centromere: region where they are joined Chromatids Centromere S phase Mitosis Make sure you understand the chromosome, chromatid relationship
It can be confusing... Haploid vs. Diploid 1 copy of every chromosome (n) 2 copies of every chromosome (2n) Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes
How many chromatids are present during:
G2? Interphase Chromosomes Condense
Nuclear envelope breaks down
mitotic spindle begins to form
Animal cells: centrioles divide. Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Chromosomes begin to migrate to cell equator.
2 complete spindles at cell poles. Chromosomes are at metaphase plate.
Spindle attaches to "kinetochore" of chromosomes at centromere Chromatids split apart at centromere.
Migration of chromatids to cell poles mediated by the kinetochore. Chromosomes decondense
Nuclear envelope reforms
Cytokinesis: cell membrane divides Growth
Replication of DNA
Preparation for division
Most of a cells life cycle Newt, Whitefish, Onion Differences between plant-like and animal-like cells (Why?) Plants Animals A "contractile ring" of microfillaments pinches the cell in 2 Vessicles from both cells deposit a new cell wall partition ("cell plate") in the middle of the cell. Organelle apportionment is essentially random. Mitosis at a Glance The Evolution of Mitosis There are more similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division than might be apparent at first glance.
Proteins involved in binary fission
& eukaryotic cell division have a
large degree of homology. Some unicellular eukaryotes demonstrate "intermediate" modes of division. Binary fission in bacteria
(aka "rolling circle replication") Let's play "spot the phases" "Non-Reductive" Eukaryotic Cell Division Describe the roles that mitosis plays in eukaryotic organisms.
Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical cells
Explain how interphase prepares a cell for mitosis.
Explain why many cells never divide.
Explain the function of each stage of mitosis
Compare the events of mitosis in plant-like and animal-like cells Why do cells need to divide?
How does cell division provide for continuity of life processes in an individual and in a species? "Binary Fission" The splitting of the cell into two. Watch it Happen!