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Causes of the Civil War RFA 2012
Transcript of Causes of the Civil War RFA 2012
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Election of 1860
States Rights Issues
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
American (Know Nothing) Party
Hartford Convention (1815)
Tariff of Abominations
Ordinance of Nullification
The Stono Rebellion (1739)
Gabriel's "conspiracy" (1800)
Nat Turner's Rebellion (1831)
Ableman v. Booth (1859)
Morrill Tariff Act
National Banking Act of 1863
Edward M. Stanton
William H. Seward
peace conference of 1861
John Wilkes Booth
Robert E. Lee
Ulysses S. Grant
The Constitutional Union Party
Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862
The Confederate States of America
The Conscription Act
The Battle of Gettysburg
by John Steuart Curry, 1937–39
John Browns Fort
"I would write something that would make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is."
Uncle Tom's Cabin opens on the Shelby plantation in Kentucky as two enslaved people, Tom and 4-year old Harry, are sold to pay Shelby family debts. Developing two plot lines, the story focuses on Tom, a strong, religious man living with his wife and 3 young children, and Eliza, Harry's mother.
When the novel begins, Eliza's husband George Harris, unaware of Harry's danger, has already escaped, planning to later purchase his family's freedom. To protect her son, Eliza runs away, making a dramatic escape over the frozen Ohio River with Harry in her arms. Eventually the Harris family is reunited and journeys north to Canada.
Tom protects his family by choosing not to run away so the others may stay together. Sold south, he meets Topsy, a young, black girl whose mischievous behavior hides her pain; Eva, the angelic, young, white girl whose death moved Victorians to tears; charming, elegant but passive St. Clare; and finally, cruel, violent Simon Legree. Tom's deep faith gives him an inner strength that frustrates his enemies as he moves toward his fate in Louisiana.
The novel ends when both Tom and Eliza escape slavery: Eliza and her family reach Canada; but Tom's freedom comes with death. Simon Legree, Tom's third and final master, has Tom whipped to death for refusing to deny his faith or betray the hiding place of two fugitive women.
Supreme Court Cases
At Freeport, Illinois, on August 27, 1858, in the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas made an effort to revive the doctrine of popular sovereignty, which had been imperiled by the Dred Scott decision.
He stated that slavery could legally be barred from the territories if the territorial legislatures simply refused to enact the type of police regulations necessary to make slavery work. Without a legal framework and enforcement officials, slavery would be excluded.
Douglas' statement enabled him to retain his Senate seat, but it split the Democratic Party and lost what little support he had in the South.
Six days after their meeting at Ottawa, Lincoln and Douglas met before 15,000 people at Freeport, the northernmost debate site. Lincoln opened, answering seven questions that Douglas had put to him at Ottawa. Lincoln declared, among other things, that it was “the right and duty of Congress to prohibit slavery in all the United States territories.” Lincoln then asked Douglas some questions of this own, with Douglas responding in part with what would become known as the Freeport Doctrine: that voters in a territory could decide whether to have slavery or not by passing laws favorable or unfavorable to it.
Abraham Lincoln, questioned whether the "spot" where blood had been shed was really U.S. soil. On December 22, 1847, he introduced the "Spot Resolutions,".
Other citizens shared their legislators' concern, particularly those in the Northeast who saw the war as a ploy to extend slavery. The most celebrated was Henry David Thoreau, who refused to pay his $1 Massachusetts poll tax because he believed the war an immoral advancement of slavery.
From The New-York Times November 20, 1860:
The law recently passed by the Massachusetts Legislature provides a heavy line and imprisonment for any one who shall in any manner aid in securing a fugitive slave, and furthermore incapacitates such person from the privileges of voting or holding any office of honor or emolument within the State forever.
Personal Liberty Laws
Is it Nullification?
The intent of the personal liberty laws appears to have been to avoid compliance with the Fugitive Slave Act. As I’ve noted several times recently, most vocal advocates of secession in 1860, far from taking a states’ rights position, claimed that the Northern states were in the wrong because _they_ were attempting to assert states’ rights over federal law in this manner.
Can people of a territory lawfully exclude slavery prior tot he creation of a state constitution?
created a force of federal commissioners empowered to pursue fugitive slaves in any state and return them to their owners. No statute of limitations applied, so that even those slaves who had been free for many years could be (and were) returned.
Existing laws had created a system designed to enforce the institution of slavery. Southern states usually had slave codes that prevented slaves from being "at large" without a pass. Any black determined to be more than a certain number of miles from his home was automatically considered a fugitive and could be thrown in jail. In Northern states like Massachusetts, however, opinion was sufficiently hostile that slaveowners could not rely on local courts to uphold their property rights.
In the heat of the Wilmot Proviso debate, many southern lawmakers began to question the right of Congress to determine the status of slavery in any territory. According to John Calhoun, the territories belonged to all the states. Why should a citizen of one state be denied the right to take his property, including slaves, into territory owned by all?
Lewis Cass of Michigan, coined the term "popular sovereignty" for a new solution that had begun to emerge. The premise was simple. Let the people of the territories themselves decide whether slavery would be permitted.
Henry Clay's Missouri Compromise
Split the VOTE!
In the early 1850s numerous anti-Catholic (NATIVISTS) secret orders grew up, Outsiders called them "Know-Nothings" and the name stuck. In 1855 the Know-Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label. The origin of the "Know Nothing" term was in the semi-secret organization of the party. When a member was asked about its activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing."
Seeking to add southerners to their party eventually lead to the splintering of the American party. At the June 1855 convention in Philadelphia, Southern members seized control and adopted a pro-slavery platform. As a result of this issue and the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Know Nothings left the American party and joined the new Republican party.
The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a protective tariff in the United States, adopted on March 2, 1861 during the administration of President James Buchanan.
Named for its sponsor, Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont, who drafted it with the advice of Pennsylvania economist Henry Charles Carey, passage of the tariff was possible because many tariff-adverse Southerners had left Congress after their states declared their secession. The Morrill Tariff raised rates to protect and encourage industry and the high wages of industrial workers. It replaced the low Tariff of 1857, which was written to benefit the South. Two additional tariffs sponsored by Morrill, each one higher, were passed during Abraham Lincoln's administration to raise urgently needed revenue during the Civil War
formed when the conflict between North and South broke down the older parties. The Constitutional Union group, composed of former Whigs and remnants of the Know-Nothings and other groups in the South, was organized just before the election of 1860. Delegates from 20 states attended the party convention at Baltimore in May, 1860, and John Bell, of Tennessee, and Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, were nominated for President and Vice President. The party recognized “no political principle but the Constitution of the country, the union of the states and the enforcement of laws.” The party carried Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia in the election.
Read more: Constitutional Union party — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0813345.html#ixzz1gvy5SxXQ
Corwin's amendment, as it was then called, was one of three attempts to resolve the secession crisis between Lincoln's election in November 1860 and the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the following article be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States as an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which, when ratified by three-fourths of said Legislatures, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution, namely:
ART. 13. No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.
--12 United States Statutes at Large, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 1861, p. 251.
the "Ghost Amendment"
a set of amendments that would have restored the old "Missouri Compromise" that was repealed in 1854, then declared unconstitutional in Dred Scott
The last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis of 1860-61 by political negotiation. Authored by Kentucky Senator John Crittenden
The amendments would continue the old Missouri Compromise provisions of 1820, which divided the West along the latitude of 36 30'. North of this line, slavery was prohibited. The Missouri Compromise was negated by the Compromise of 1850, which allowed a vote by territorial residents (popular sovereignty) to decide the issue of slavery. Other amendments protected slavery in the District of Columbia, forbade federal interference with the interstate slave trade, and compensated owners whose slaves escaped to the free states.
The Mexican American War
Fort Sumter 4/12/61
Anaconda Plan 1861
1st Battle of Bull Run July 1861 (Manassas)
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
The Monitor v. Virginia (Merrimack)
March 9th 1862
2nd Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
July August 1862
U.S. General-in-Chief Winfield Scott
Plan to defeat the Confederacy
Blockade the southern and eastern coasts
Seize control of the Mississippi River...break the Confederacy in two
South Carolina, Mississippi, and Georgia seized U.S. Arsenals, mints, and other public property within their borders
Confederacy views this as an act of aggression
Result: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy
Sea battle during the Civil War
Monitor: Union Ship
Virginia: Confederate Ship
Neither ship was victorious, but it did signal the end of wooden warships
Union: Major General John Pope
Confederacy: General Robert E. Lee, Major General Thomas J. Jackson, and Lieutenant General James Longstreet
Confederate forces victorious
22,180 casualties. Of those, 13,830 were Union soldiers
Turning point of the Civil War
General George Meade's army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia.
Over 50,000 dead & wounded. About 1/2 were Confederates. (nearly a third of Lee's force)
Lee ended his invasion of the north
Part of the Maryland Campaign
First major battle of the Civil War to take place on Northern soil
23,000 casualties in one day
Executive order issued by Lincoln on
January 1, 1863
Freed the slaves in Confederate states that were still in rebellion
The Impending Crisis of the South
argued that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the South.
"A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks and limitations, and always changing easily with deliberate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the only true sovereign of a free people."
Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson "Stonewall Jackson"
a shock to people who were hoping for a short war, and those who were unprepared for the carnage of modern warfare
1st Battle of Bull Run July 1861 (Manassas)
Gettysburg Address--November 19, 1863
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
"Preserve the Union"
"to have the body"
In a time of war...your rights can be taken away!!!
Second Inaugural Address--March 4, 1865
John Wilkes Booth
"Sic semper tyrannis"
"thus always to tyrants."
Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theatre
in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865
March 4, 1861
Lincoln issued his order pursuant to the provision in Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution stating that "the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion and invasion the public safety may require it," generally called the suspension clause
EX PARTE MILLIGAN
Sherman's March to the Sea
Gen. William Sherman
Destroyed everything through the
"Cradle of Secession"
EX PARTE MERRYMAN
case decided in 1861 by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney sitting as a federal circuit judge in Baltimore, Md. John Merryman, a citizen of Maryland, was imprisoned by the U.S. army on suspicion of favoring the Confederacy. He obtained a writ of habeas corpus. The commanding general refused to respect this action, alleging that President Lincoln had authorized him to suspend the writ. Taney held that Article 1, Section 9, of the U.S. Constitution gave to Congress alone the power to suspend the writ in case of rebellion or invasion and that consequently the President's action had been without warrant and represented a threat to the liberties of all Americans. Lincoln, however, continued to adhere to the same practice throughout the Civil War. Congress ratified the suspension in 1863
Lee Surrenders at Appomattox
April 9th 1865
"Men, wehave fought the war together, and I have done the best I could for you. You will all be paroled and go to your homes..My heart is too full to say more.
The Democratic Party was in disarray in 1860 when they convened in Charleston, South Carolina to choose their presidential candidate. Southern elements insisted that the nominating convention make a strong statement supporting slavery in the territories. Western elements, however, opposed that stance and argued for an endorsement of popular sovereignty. The latter position prevailed and the Southern delegates walked out.
The Northern Democrats later met in Baltimore, Maryland, and nominated Stephen A. Douglas. Following the violence in "Bleeding Kansas," Douglas had lost much support within the party; however, he had reclaimed his prominence by denouncing Buchanan and the Lecompton constitution in 1858.
The Southern Democrats reconvened in Richmond, Virginia and nominated John C. Breckinridge; the platform pledged the protection of slavery in the territories. A moderate position was sought by the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated John Bell. The party, composed mostly of former Whigs, enjoyed some strength in the Border States, but lacked any semblance of vigor and was dubbed the "Old Gentlemen's Party."
William H. Seward confidently anticipated the nomination from the Republican Party in 1860. The party leaders, however, realized that they had to become more than simply the focal point for antislavery sentiment. Included in the platform were calls for a moderately higher tariff, federally sponsored internal improvements, a homestead bill and federal assistance for a transcontinental railroad to be built over the central route. On slavery, the Republicans proclaimed that each state could decide the issue within its own borders and that no one (Congress or the territorial legislatures) could legalize slavery in the territories.
Abraham Lincoln was a respected state politician in Illinois. He was attractive to the Republican delegates because he was a talented speaker, had a moderate position on slavery and was a Westerner who could mount a challenge to Douglas. Seward led on the first few ballots, but Lincoln remained in contention. On the third ballot Lincoln prevailed, his victory due largely to the skillful maneuverings of his campaign managers. They lined up votes with promises of patronage and jammed the convention with Lincoln supporters.
During the campaign, Lincoln ventured into the South where he preached the value of the Union. In almost the same breath he also warned against secession and pledged that he would, if necessary, act with the conviction of Andrew Jackson in the nullification crisis almost 30 years earlier.
Lincoln's strength was confined to the populous Northern states, but he won a decisive victory in the Electoral College. However, he polled only about 40 percent of the popular vote. Douglas garnered an impressive popular vote, but barely made a showing in the electoral tally.
New York City Draft Riots
They criticized the federal government's intrusion into local affairs on behalf of the "nigger war." Democratic Party leaders raised the specter of a New York deluged with southern blacks in the aftermath of the Emancipation Proclamation. White workers compared their value unfavorably to that of southern slaves, stating that "[we] are sold for $300 [the price of exemption from war service] whilst they pay $1000 for negroes." In the midst of war-time economic distress, they believed that their political leverage and economic status was rapidly declining as blacks appeared to be gaining power. On Saturday, July 11, 1863, the first lottery of the conscription law was held. For twenty-four hours the city remained quiet. On Monday, July 13, 1863, between 6 and 7 A.M., the five days of mayhem and bloodshed that would be known as the Civil War Draft Riots began.
All male citizens between twenty and thirty-five and all unmarried men between thirty-five and forty-five years of age were subject to military duty. The federal government entered all eligible men into a lottery. Those who could afford to hire a substitute or pay the government three hundred dollars might avoid enlistment. Blacks, who were not considered citizens, were exempt from the draft.
U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph #: NH 58769
Louis Prang & Co.; lithograph signed "Jo Davidson"