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The Odyssey: Timeline Of Events

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Marcus Tierrablanca

on 6 May 2015

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Transcript of The Odyssey: Timeline Of Events

The Odyssey: Timeline Of Events
By: Alex Meraz, Franky Flores, and Marcus Tierrablanca
Odysseus's Journey
Telemachus's Journey and Penelope
The Apple that Started a War
Everything started with the Golden Apple that said "To the Most Fair...” It was wanted by the three goddesses, Athena, goddess of wisdom, Aphrodite, goddess of love, and Hera, goddess of beauty. Zeus couldn’t decide who to give the fruit to since he loved all three. So he decided that Paris, Prince of Troy, would decide who received it. The goddesses attempted to bribe Paris. Athena offered wisdom, Aphrodite offered the most beautiful woman, and Hera offered power and land. Paris decided to choose the most beautiful women in the world and awarded Aphrodite the Golden Apple. And Aphrodite and Paris kidnap Helen the queen of Sparta, as another part of the prize. Menelaus, Husband of Helen, was enraged of Paris’ actions and declared war on Troy. This starts the Trojan War, which Odysseus, a great hero, fights in. He is the one that wins the war by his sneak attack with the Trojan Horse. When the war was over after 10 years, the great Odysseus TRIES to head home.
Trapped In Polyphemus's Cave
Just after the Trojan War ended, Odysseus and his men set sail to Ithaca, their home. But a huge storm separates the ships and Odysseus's ends up on an island inhabited by giants and their sheep. Odysseus and his men, now stuck on this island, explore into a huge cave. The person living in this cave, a Cyclops named Polyphemus, isn't happy about the intruders so he eats some of the men. After that, he places a boulder on the entrance and leaves to tend to his sheep. Odysseus makes a plan to escape. When Polyphemus returned, Odysseus got the Cyclops drunk and he passed out. As he fell, Odysseus stabbed his eye, blinding Polyphemus. With the boulder moved, Odysseus and his men narrowly escape the island on their ship. Unfortunately, Polyphemus happens to be Poseidon's son, and he is the god of the sea.
The Cattle of the Sun
After escaping Chaybdis and Scylla, Odysseus and his men see the Island of the sun god, Helios. Odysseus wants to sail past it but his men, led by Eurylochus tell him to stop because they need to rest. Odysseus gives in and agrees to stop but emphasizes the point that they are not to touch the cattle of the sun. They were only supposed to stay at the island for one night but a storm brewed and they were forced to stay for a month. When food was plentiful the men didn’t complain but when it ran out Eurylochus comes up with a plan to eat the cows. He says a bunch of stuff about how he’d rather a god kill him then to die of starvation. He also said he was going to make up eating the cow by building a temple to Helios when they returned to Ithaca. So when Odysseus was asleep his men killed the finest cow and ate it. When Odysseus woke up he smelled steak and got mad at his men for disobeying and he said they were all going to die. The storm finally stopped and Odysseus and his men were on their way.


Death at Sea and Calypso
Since Odysseus's men had eaten the cattle, Helios got mad and he went to Zeus to complain. Zeus said that he was going to kill the men by sending a thunderbolt to split their ship in half. So Zeus waited for them to leave and he sent the thunderbolt. As prophesized they all died except for Odysseus. He was sucked back in toward Charybdis but he hung onto a tree and he was safe from harm. Odysseus was stranded and alone on a piece of wood for 9 days until he was saved by a bewitching nymph named Calypso. After the shipwreck Odysseus lands of Calypso’s Island. She is banished on this magic island for siding with the Titans in the Titan War. She can’t leave the island no matter what she does. Calypso falls in love with Odysseus and she tries to seduce him lots of times. Finally Odysseus gives in to her seductiveness and sleeps with her. He spends seven long and painful years mourning for home and his lost companions. .
Seven years after Odysseus was imprisoned on Calypso's island, Athena, a great figure in the Trojan War, was remembering her favorite hero: Odysseus. She feels pity for him and consults with Zeus to make a plan to get the lost hero back home. After a lot of persuading, the god of lightning agrees to send Hermes to the nymph's island to finally make a deal to set Odysseus free. While that happens, Athena decides to go to Ithaca to help Odysseus's son, Telemachus in bringing order back to the kingdom and for him to find out whethet or not his father is alive.
The Gods' Plan
While Odysseus never returned for seven years, his kingdom began to go downhill. His halls became filled with suitors trying to marry Penelope, his wife, and they "bled the house white". Odysseus's son, Telemachus, is prince but no one really takes him seriously. To be concise, Odysseus's castle is run by wasteful suitors while Penelope and Telemachus watch helplessly. One day,Telemachus was sitting in the hall surrounded by the grotesque suitors when he noticed a guest walk in. He didn’t know it at the time but that guest was a disguised Athena. Telemachus shows good hospitality and he has a feast prepared for the guest. He apologizes for the lazy suitors in the palace and explains about his missing father and how things would be different if he were here. He then asks his guest for his name. Athena (the guest) says that his name is Mentes. Mentes then says that Odysseus is not dead and that Telemachus should go to see Nestor in Pylos and then to Sparta to see Menelaus to find out information about the whereabouts of his father. Then Mentes leaves and rejects the gifts that Telemachus offered him. When she leaves, Athena begins to prepare a ship, supplies, and a crew for Telemachus’s journey to Pylos. It is then that Athena (Mentes) gives Telemachus a vision about his father. Telemachus then realizes he was in the presence of a God or Goddess but he doesn’t know who.
Athena and Telemachus in Ithaca
Odysseus Escapes Calypso
By this time, Odysseus has been trapped with Calypso for seven years. Back on Mount Olympus, Zeus amd Athena are talking again about helping Odysseus return home. After some begging from Athena, Zeus finally agrees to help again. He tells Hermes, the messenger god, to go to the island of Calypso where Odysseus is being held and to tell her to let him go or else she will face the consequences. Quick as lightning, the messenger god flies to the exotic island home of the bewitching nymph and her prisoner. He relays the message to Calypso and she is mad at first. She says that it's not fair that immortal women always get in trouble for falling on love with mortal men but the gods can always love mortal women. Reluctantly, she agrees to let him go and to help him build a boat to leave as well. At this time, Odysseus is doing what he usually is: looking out to the sea, longing and crying for home. Calypso finds him and tells him the he is finally free. He rejoices amd begins to build his boat to escape. After a couple days of building amd preparing, Odysseus is now set to leave on his nice boat that's filled with food and supplies from the nymph. She sadly says goodbye to her love and Odysseus finally begins to set sail to his homeland.
Now out in the open ocean, Odysseus begins his course home to Ithaca. He was doing fine until Poseidon, god of the sea spots one of his worst enemies in the middle of the ocean. Immediately, a storm starts brewing and Odysseus gets scared. The sky grows dark and the waves become huge. He begins to fear that this is how he will die: alone and cold out in the middle of the deadly sea. As the waves get more dangerous and Odysseus's ship begins to break, a sea-nymph named Ino comes to the rescue. She gives Odysseus her veil to tie around his waist- and to abandon ship. At first he is skeptical, but, seeing there was no other choice besides death, Odysseus ties the veil around him and jumps into the sea just as his ship is destroyed. Ino's veil keeps him afloat in the water but the waves were still a problem. Now Athena comes to help the stranded hero. She calms the waves herself and produces a wind that pushes Odysseus towards land. He floats for two days until he finally sees land. The worn out and soaking Odysseus kisses the ground he's now on and prays to get some rest. Athena guides him to some bushes where she casts sleep on him and he rests for a long time.
Odysseus at Sea
The land that Odysseus has washed up on is the land of Phaeacia, home to the Phaeacians. Athena goes to the princess, named Nausicaa, in a dream and tells her to go do laundry in the streams by the ocean. This is where Odysseus is sleeping. Son Nausicaa and some women take laundry to the streams and begin to wash. Odysseus wakes up and hears them. He approaches Nausicaa, begging to know where he is and that he needs help. With bravery from Athena, the princess gives this stranger clothes and tells him to go with her to her parents, Alcinuous and Arete, the king and queen, so that they might help him get back home. Odysseus makes his way to their home and he presents himself to the queen, begging for help. The king and queen pity this stranger and they also treat him with hospitality. They give him a bath and a feast and a place to sleep. The next day, there are games, dances, and stories sung by Demodocus. After all this partying, there is another feast where Odysseus reveals his true identity and his journey home. All of the Phaeacians listen intently while Odysseus begins to tell his story from after the Trojan War to how he ended up sitting there.
Odysseus In Phaecia
When Telemachus arrives at Pylos he sees the citizens making sacrifices to Poseidon. Telemachus is nervous about delivering a speech but Mentes/Athena gives him support. Nestor,the king of Sparta, prepares a feast for his guests and once they’ve eaten he asks why the men have come. Telemachus introduces him and the men and asks about his father. Nestor compliments Telemachus on how he takes after his father. Then Nestor explains what happened. The king says how the Greeks had trouble getting back home because they received no godly help. Nestor explains how Menelaus and Agamemnon split up and Odysseus went with Menelaus but later changed his mind and headed back to show his loyalty to Agamemnon. That bad idea considering Nestor and Menelaus (which traveled together) made it home safely. Agamemnon then goes home only to be killed by his wife and her lover. He continues to explain how Orestes took revenge on his mom and lover by killing them and claiming his kingdom. Telemachus then says he would like to do the same by killing the suitors. Nestor warns Telemachus not to stay away from home too long considering he left the suitors alone. Nestor offers Telemachus a bed for the night and Telemachus accepts. Athena then reveals herself by changing form into an eagle. Nestor makes a sacrifice to the goddess and the next day they throw another feast. He gives Telemachus horses so that he can travel to Sparta while Nestor’s son Pisistratus tags along.
Telemachus and King Nestor
When Telemachus arrives at Pylos he sees the citizens making sacrifices to Poseidon. Telemachus is nervous about delivering a speech but Mentes/Athena gives him support. Nestor,the king of Sparta, prepares a feast for his guests and once they’ve eaten he asks why the men have come. Telemachus introduces him and the men and asks about his father. Nestor compliments Telemachus on how he takes after his father. Then Nestor explains what happened. The king says how the Greeks had trouble getting back home because they received no godly help. Nestor explains how Menelaus and Agamemnon split up and Odysseus went with Menelaus but later changed his mind and headed back to show his loyalty to Agamemnon. That bad idea considering Nestor and Menelaus (which traveled together) made it home safely. Agamemnon then goes home only to be killed by his wife and her lover. He continues to explain how Orestes took revenge on his mom and lover by killing them and claiming his kingdom. Telemachus then says he would like to do the same by killing the suitors. Nestor warns Telemachus not to stay away from home too long considering he left the suitors alone. Nestor offers Telemachus a bed for the night and Telemachus accepts. Athena then reveals herself by changing form into an eagle. Nestor makes a sacrifice to the goddess and the next day they throw another feast. He gives Telemachus horses so that he can travel to Sparta while Nestor’s son Pisistratus tags along.
Telemachus in Sparta
Odysseus's Homecoming
When Odysseus finished telling his story to the Phaeacians, they all were amazed by everything that Odysseus had been through. In a way, they respected him and thought of him almost like a god. Alcinuous, the king, ordered at once for a ship to be prepared to take the hero home at last. They all gave him gifts of gold and riches and loaded it on board. At last, Odysseus, with a new skilled crew, sets sail to Ithaca. He is put into a deep sleep by Athena to get rest. The ship reaches the land and, to not disturb his slumber, the crew lays Odysseus on the shore with all of his gifts and they take off. But Poseidon was not too happy with the Phaeacians helping Odysseus so he raises mountains all around Phaecia so it's no longer accessible by boat. Back at Ithaca, Athena finally reveals her true self to Odysseus once he wakes up. Together, they hide all of his treasure in a nearby cave and then focous on the new task at hand: dealing with the suitors that have trashed his home. Athena leaves the plan- making to Odysseus but she wants all of the suitors to pay for their behavior with death. She disguises him as a beggar and tells him to head to the house of the royal swineheard and good friend of Penelope and Telemachus, Eumaus. There, he can sleep, eat, and begin to plot his extermintion of the suitors in his home.
Telemachus's Homecoming
Now, after Athena had helped Odysseus with his homecoming, she now wants to bring Telemachus back home from Sparta. Back at Ithaca, though, the suitors are plotting to kill Telemachus once he gets close in his ship because they are tired of him and want to marry his mother already. Athena is aware of this plan so she makes sure to protect Telemcahus on his way home. She appears to him right before he falls asleep and lies to him saying that one of the suitors, Eurymachus, is about to marry Penelope. Enraged, he sets sail the next day and heads to Ithaca. On the way, he lets a man named Theoclymenos board and go to Ithaca with them. He interprets a sign that he sees as Odysseus returning and gaining his place as king back. With the help of Athena, Telemachus's ship makes it safely to the shores of Ithaca. She tells him to head to the swineherd's home to tell Eumaus to tell Penelope that her son has safely returned. He enters the swineherd's house and sees the beggar sitting there with Eumaus, not knowing that this was his father that he hasn't seen in years.
The Island of Circe
After being blown off course again, Odysseus and his crew find themselves on the island of Circe, an evil goddess. Circe is the goddess of magic, who constantly changes her enemies into animals using herbs and drugs. She lives in a big mansion on the top of a cliff that is guarded by lions and wolves who were her victims of her magic. Circe invited some of Odysseus’ men to a feast, where she changes them all into swine using her potions. Eurylochus, the second-in-command on Odysseus’s ship, returns to tell Odysseus and the others what had happened. Odysseus goes to rescue his men that have been turned into swine, but on the road to rescue, Hermes intervened. Hermes gave Odysseus a “Holy Herb” that would cause Circe’s potions to become powerless. Then Circe went to bed with Odysseus and Odysseus stayed on the island for a year. Circe had a change of heart and told Odysseus of a way to get back to Ithaca. He must go to the Underworld to hear a prophecy from the great Tiresias that will help him get home.
Odysseus in the Underworld
Taking Circe's word, Odysseus and his crew use their ship to head to the Underworld, a place where the sun never shines and darkness is everywhere. In order to bring forth Tiresias, Odysseus must make a sort of drink-sacrifice in the ground to bring the dead souls to him. Many appear and try to drink the sacrifice, but Odysseus must keep them away because he needs the prophet to drink from it. Even his dead mother appears, and he must keep her away, too, even though it pains him to do it. Finally, Tiresias appears, drinks from the sacrifice, and tell Odysseus the prophecy: he will not make it home peacefully or soon. He also says that if any of Helios's cattle is killed, all of his crew members will die. After that, Odysseus's mother comes and drinks and tells hims about the state of Ithaca: suitors are taking over and Penelope is staying faithful. Once he heard everything, Odysseus leaves the Underworld and heads back to Circe's island.
The Sirens And Charybdis
Once back at Circe's island, she tells Odysseus about the path he must take to get home. The first thing they will pass are the Sirens, which sing beautiful music that lead you to your death. Next, in a pass between two cliffs, there are two dangers to look out for: Scylla, a multi-headed monster that will eat men and a whirlpool name Charybdis that can suck in a whole ship and spew it out, breaking it to pieces. They set sail and pass the Sirens fine, except that Odysseus wanted to hear so he had to be tied down to the ship. When they went through the pass, they avoided Charybdis, but Scylla ate many of the crew. The ship makes it through along with Odysseus and they continue home.
Making the Plan
Eumaus leaves to tell Penelope about her son's return. While he is gone, Athena reveals Odysseus's true self to his son and they both rejoice at the reunion. Together, they plan out their way of getting rid of the suitors. Telemachus and Odysseus as the beggar will go into town the next day and then into the palace. There, Odysseus will see the suitors and blend in while Telemachus secretly hides all of their weapons away. Then, with the gods on their side, Odysseus and Telemachus will kill all of the suitors and even the maids who were unfaithful. Eumaus returns to the hut and Telemachus leaves to the palace already while beggar Odysseus will wait till the next day to head over to "beg".
Executing The Plan
The nex day, Odysseus and Eumaus head into town to go to the feast in the palace. On the way, they meet Melanthius, a goatherd, who insults beggar Odysseus. They continue to the feast in the palace where all of the suitors, Telemachus, and Penelope are sitting. Penelope had been weaving and asking her son if he had found anything out about her husband, but he told her to be patient. Now, the beggar goes around to the suitors to beg for food, but most of them just ignore him. The main leaders of the suitors, Antinous and Eurymachus, make fun of the beggar. They even throw a footstool at him! Another beggar, named Irus, wants to fight Odysseus and he knocks Irus out in one punch. Penelope sees there is something curious about this beggar so she takes him to her room to talk to him. She tells him about her husband never returning from war and how she is going to marry a suitor just to get rid of the rest. Odysseus as the beggar assures her that her husband will still return, but she is skeptical. That night, Odysseus sleeps outside of Penelope's room in the hall and sees the maids to go to bed with the suitors at night. He gets mad at this, but doesn't do anything yet. The next morning, Penelope announces the contest: whoever can string Odysseus's magic bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe heads will get to marry her. Most of the suitors try but they fail horribly. Then beggar Odysseus wants to try. All the suitors beging to laugh at him, but they still watch curiously. At this time, Telemachus is telling all the women to go lock themselves in their rooms and to not come out until he tells them to. Once they are all gone, Odysseus easily strings the bow, shoots the arrow through the axe heads, and transforms back into the regular Odysseus. The slaughter begins. With the help of Telemachus, Eumaus, Athena, and a couple other loyal friends, all of the suitors are killed in the halls of the palace. The loyal maids are then sent out to clean the mess while Telemachus takes the disloyal ones and hangs them. Odysseus now goes to finally meet his wife.
The End
Now that Odysseus was in his true form, Penelope saw her husband, but she could still not believe that it was truly him. As a test, she told him that he could rest on the bed Odysseus made by pulling it out to the hall. But Odysseus knew that the bed was carved out of a tree, it was rooted, so it could not be moved. When she heard this, Penelope rejoiced to finally have her husband back. They make love and tell stories about the years they were apart. After everything had settled, Odysseus became king of Ithaca once again. Although, some townspeople were mad at him because he had killed all of the suitors. Before another fight could break out, Athena appeared to them all and made them swear to have oeace over the land of Ithaca with their new king now ruling once again.
The way that Odysseus handled Polyphemus shows that he is smart, which is a good archetype of a hero. In the book, he devises a plan to get the Cyclops drunk and then for him to fall on his own sword, stabbing him in the eye so he can't see anymore. Given that Odysseus only had a staff and all the wine in the cave, this was a very elaborate plan of escape. The way he used the powers of the Cyclops against himself is very smart. Also, being able to get out of tough situations shows that Odysseus is a good leader and a good hero.
The way Penelope avoids marrying the suitors shows that she is very cunning. She uses the excuse that she wants to weave her burial shroud before she gets married. So, she spends all day weaving and at night, she sneaks to it and undoes it so it seems like it never changed, This is very smart of Penelope because she is prolonging something bad (marrying a suitor) but this also shows that she is very faithful to her husband. She is lying to keep herself from betraying her one true love: Odysseus.
When Odysseus is in Phaeacia, he is shown hospitality by being offered a bed, food, and basically being treated like a king. This shows insight into Greek culture and how they take pride in all they do. They do that because they want other people to do the same and to also tell other people they meet about their good manners and hospitality.
When Odysseus goes to the Land of the Dead and sees his mother, he feels pity towards her. He must force himself to keep her away from the sacrifice for Tiresias and he cries for her. This is an important archetype of a hero because it shows that a hero shouldn't just be a tough, emotionless person. A good hero also has compassion and love towards others.
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