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Henry VII and Consolidation of Power
Transcript of Henry VII and Consolidation of Power
Key Question: Were the people of England witnessing the birth of a golden age?
Still on the Battlefield
The battle was over but Tudor got to work whilst still on the field.
Lord Stanley proclaimed Tudor King of England whilst still on the battlefield. This immediately gave him support from the English nobility.
Tudor immediately knighted 11 men, fresh (probably tired actually) from battle. How was this a stark contrast to Richard?
Sir Richard Willoughby was sent to bring Elizabeth of York and Edward, Earl of Warwick to London. Why was this a vital early move?
A proclamation was sent out to tell all the English that Richard was dead. Given the period and the speed of travel/news, why was this necessary?
He immediately dated the his reign to 21st August 1485, a day before the battle. What would this allow Tudor to do to his opponents who backed Richard on the field?
Henry made a short stop at St Albans. Even though London was key, this time was valuable. He could enter London in the manner he wanted (remember Richard's coronation?).
He had time to appoint the right men to his Counsel. Why was the Counsel so vital to a (new) king?
Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop of York, was made Chancellor of England and the a temporary Treasurer of the Exchequer. Although elderly, he had great experience in public affairs.
The Chancellor then passed to John Morton, Bishop of Ely (not Ellie), whilst Lord Dynham became Treasurer of the Exchequer and Bishop Peter Courtenay (remember the Courtenays?) became keeper of the Privy Seal. The later was a loyal Yorkist.
NB - Rotherham and Morton had fallen out with Richard at the arrest of Hastings.
Henry had to take Counsel but he could make the final decisions himself. For additional advice, he could call upon:
His mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort
Jasper Tudor (his uncle)
John Vere, Earl of Oxford
He also assembled a royal household, a group of personal advisors that traveled with the king. These included William Stanley (now Lord Chamberlain, in charge of the king's household), and exiles such as Reginald Bray, Giles Daubeney, Richard Guildford, Thomas Lovell and John Risely.
Arrival at London
Henry arrived 3 September, 1485, met by the the mayor and aldermen (town council members). Sword bearers and sergeants accompanied him to St Paul's and the citizens showed their favour by providing processions and pageants.
The Te Deum (a Christian hymn) was sang.
Henry deposited his three banners at the Cathedral, just as Edward IV had done after Barnet (1471).
Henry's detailed accounts (the hallmark of a shrew financier) indicated that he made every effort for his attire to appear regal (including an extravagant, costly purple velvet robe). Why might this be a positive image for a Medieval king?
Explain what steps Henry VII took to secure his new crown (B)
Evaluate how secure Henry's position was in the first years after Bosworth (A)
Think: what are the advantages of these early appointments?
Think: Of those individuals you have already met, what would make them valuable advisors/supporters of Tudor?
In keeping with tradition, Henry dined with the Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Bourchier) at Lambeth Palace on 27th October and then traveled in procession to the Tower of London, were he lodged. Both were the customary acts before a king's coronation.
The next day he granted the Dukedom of Bedford to Jasper Tudor as well as other titles to his followers and then dined with them in the Great Chamber.
On 29th October he had a procession to Westminster Hall.
He was crowned on 30th October by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Bedford bore the crown, Derby the sword of state and Oxford the king's train.
He showed himself to the people and returned to banquet in the Tower.
Think: How has Henry been enhancing his regal image since Bosworth?
Next on the agenda was Parliament. Henry VII issued a writ, summoning parliament on 15th September. It met on 7th November:
Parliament declared him King through hereditary title, as shown by God on the battlefield.
Some of Richard's Acts of Attainder were reversed and new ones were passed against Henry's opponents at Bosworth.
'Tunnage and poundage', the right to gain revenue from imports/exports was granted to Tudor for life.
An Act of Resumption allowed Tudor to claim all land held by Henry VI before the War of the Roses (with some conditions in place).
An oath of loyalty was approved for the whole of the royal household and both houses of Parliament.
Richard's act declaring Edward IV's children illegitimate was nullified.
Marriage to Elizabeth of York
The final action Parliament took, on 10th December, was to request Henry marry Elizabeth in keeping with his promise. As they were blood relations, he required dispensation. Initially 8 English bishops gave approval (16th January) and the Pope confirmed (2nd March).
This marriage, on the 18th January, cemented relationships between Lancastrians and Yorkists.
The Queen had a reputation for her beauty and skill, which could only reflect well on Tudor.
The Queen was crowned later, after a rebellion and the birth of Henry's first son, Arthur. Why wait for these two?
Behind Every Successful King...
On pp. 42-3 there is a lengthy profile of Elizabeth. Read through the information and complete the worksheet on this interesting historical figure.