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Biology 1.4 and 1.5

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ali day

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of Biology 1.4 and 1.5

1.4 Biologists' Tools and Technology
Imaging technologies provide new views of life.
Complex Systems are modeled on computers
The tools of molecular genetics give rise to new biological studies

Biology 1.4 and 1.5
Ariana Laboy and Ali Day

Microscope- an object that provides an enlarged image of an object
Gene- segment of DNA that stores genetic information
Molecular Genetics- the study and manipulation of DNA on a molecular level
Genomics- the study and comparison of genomes both within and across species
As technology continues to improve, our understanding of biology grows.
Microscope- object that provides an enlarged image of an object
Combination of lenses in microscopes makes the image clearer
Two different kinds of microscopes:
Light Microscopes
Electron Microscopes
Light Microscopes
Early microscopes were light microscopes
Clearly magnify specimens up to about 1500 times their actual size
Many times, samples are stained with chemicals to make details stand out
Electron Microscopes
Developed in 1950's
Use beams of electrons to magnify objects
Can magnify objects clearly more than 100,000 times their actual size
Cannot be used to study living organisms
Two types of electron microscopes:
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
Medical Imaging
Computer Models
END OF 1.4!!!
1) How do light microscopes differ from electron microscopes?

2) Why is computer modeling used in biological studies?

3)How does molecular genetics add to our understanding of genes?
1.5 Biology and Your Future
Your health and the health of the environment depend on out knowledge of biology.
Biotechnology offers great promise but also raises many issues.
Biology presents many unanswered questions.
Biotechnology-the use and application of living things and biological processes.
Transgenic-organisms that have genes from more than 1 species, or have altered copies of their own gene.
Your health and the health of the environment depend on your knowledge of biology.
Biology and Your Health
What you eat and drink is directly related to your health. But you would never think twice about contaminated food or water, or a lack of vitamins in you diet. Not long ago, there were many diseases caused by vitamin deficiencies. Even today we face food-related causes of illness. Biology can help you better understand all of these health-related issues.
Biology and the World Around You
1995-middle school students found many frogs with deformities including: missing legs, missing eyes and extra legs. Scientist then started their research on why there were so many deformities in these frogs. Scientists did not find parasites at first but they now suggest that the frog deformities are due to a combination of infection by parasites called trematodes. Scientists may find out what is wrong but it it really up to us to makes decisions.
Biotechnology offers great promise but also raises many issues.
All domestic plants and animals are the result of centuries of genetic manipulation. through selective breeding. Today, genetic manipulation can mean the transfer of genetic information from one organism to a very different organism.
Transgenic Bacteria can make human insulin to help treat people with diabetes.
Genetically modified foods=Transgenic organisms
Benefits and Biological Risks.
Genetically modified foods have many potential benefits. Crop plants are changed to increase the nutrients and yield of the plants and to resist insects. But is it safe to eat these crops? Around the world the benefits and risks of biotechnology are debated.
Benefits and Ethical Considerations.
Genetic screening
analysis of a person's genes to identify genetic variations.
can determine the individual's or potential offspring's risk for certain diseases or genetic disorders.
But it also raises ethical concerns
insurance companies may not want to provide insurance to someone they know might get sick.
the parents may not want a child with a genetic disorder
but also people may want to use the screening to change the characteristics of their children.
Biology presents many unanswered questions.
1953-structure of DNA described
2003-entire human DNA sequence known
But there are still many unanswered questions scientists have.
Who knows what will be discovered in the next 20 years?
1. What does biotechnology mean?

2. What does transgenic mean?

3. Give some pros and cons about genetic screening.
Questions or comments?
The End(:
Scans the surface of a specimen with a beam of electrons
Specimens surface is coated with a very thin layer of a metal that deflects the electrons
Computer forms three-dimension image based on measurements created by electrons
Transmits electrons through a thin slice of a specimen
makes a two-dimensional image similar to that of a light microscope
TEM has much higher magnification than light microscope
Technology is also used in medical imaging
Medical imaging is used to study inside of people
X-ray's and MRI's are examples of medical imaging
Computers can model complex systems within organisms
Used when it is not safe to test in real life
Help biologists study complex systems on a larger scale
Gene- segment of DNA that stores genetic information
DNA + genes were learned about in the past forty years
Since then, our biological understanding has greatly improved
Molecular Genetics- study and manipulation of DNA on a molecular level
Used to to genetically modify objects
Genomics- study and comparison of genomes both within and across species
Combining computers and molecular genetics led to genomics
All information from genomics is managed in database where scientists can use it
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