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Adaptations & Evolution

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Kyle Egan

on 1 December 2014

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Transcript of Adaptations & Evolution

Adaptations & Evolution

The Scientist

Charles Darwin
studied birds on the Galapagos Islands
Noticed that the same bird from different islands looked or behaved differently
Came up with
Theory of Evolution & Natural Selection
Change
in
inherited
characteristics of species over
MANY generations

Evolution

Natural Selection

Survival of the Fittest
Traits become more or less common in nature
based on organism survival
Natural Selection

Adaptation

Traits
in an organism developed through natural selection that
help organisms survive

Take many generations
Physical
feature of an animal

Structural Adaptation
Same species, different beaks to eat different types of food

Beaks

Camouflage

Things animals do to survive

Examples:
Migration – Animals travel to find better environments
Hibernation – Animals sleep long times to conserve energy and food


Behavioral Adaptation

Animals act or sound like other animals
Mimicry

Physiological Adaptation

Living in extreme
environments

Cactus expands to hold water
Goosebumps when
we are cold

Homeostasis

Things animals
do
to survive
Examples:
Migration
- travel to find better environments

Hibernation
- Sleep to conserve energy & food
Adaptations that occur
inside the body
of an organism

Usually
respond to a change in environment

Purpose is to maintain
homeostasis
Internal balance
Variation
Different versions
of something
Genetic Variation
Differences in
genes
causing
different traits
in populations
Causes...
Crossing Over
Mutations
Mutation
Change in DNA
sequence
PERMANENT
Cause organisms to adapt and evolve
Can be harmful or helpful
More survival = More parents to pass on traits
Natural Selection has
nothing to do with
what an organism
needs
, only what they inherit
Peppered moths
Hard seeds
Soft seeds
Insects in trees
Seeds in fruit
Hard Seeds

Soft seeds

Seeds in fruit

Insects in trees
Giraffes had different neck lengths
Long necks survived and passed on genes
Eventually, all giraffes had long necks
Why so many adaptations?
Many animals have a

common ancestor
Millions of years ago, all continents were clumped together (called Pangaea)
When continents split, populations were separated
Divergence
- Plants or animals with a common ancestor evolve differently when living in different conditions
Bet you didn't know...
Snakes and whales both have tiny leg bones they do not use and we can't see.
They both came from a common ancestor millions of years ago.
Warm-Up Pg. 43
List as many human adaptations as you can come up with.


Homologous Structures
Body parts that are similar in different species due to common ancestors

EXAMPLE: Bones in dog legs and bones in lizard legs
**INSTINCT**
Physiological Examples
* During hibernation, an animal's metabolism (how it digests food) slows down




* Frogs produce slime to conserve water when it is too dry outside
Add the following words to your Vocab assignment...
Structural adaptation
Camouflage
Homologous Structures
Behavioral adaptation
Mimicry
Physiological adaptation
Homeostasis
Remember to define them and draw a picture of them.
Get on Homeroom, Open "Adaptations notes" in the Prezi app
Pg. 44
Warm-up
Go to your Adaptations notes in your journal
Think: What are some things your body does to protect you without you even thinking about it?
Full transcript