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What is Human Geography?
Transcript of What is Human Geography?
The study of how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region, and world. Interaction of physical environment and human activity
Where are people?
What are they like?
What is their interaction over space?
What kinds of landscapes do they erect?
The spatial arrangement of places and phenomena (human and physical).
How are things organized on Earth?
How do they appear on the landscape?
"The why of where."
Geographic inquiry focuses on the spatial.
Map of Cholera Victims in London’s Soho District in 1854.
The patterns of victim’s homes and water pump locations helped uncover the source of the disease.
0 degrees (runs through Greenwich, England, GMT)
180 degrees—24 hours different from GMT.
every 15 degrees of longitude equals one hour of time, measured from GMT.
Ex: Eastern US approx. 75 degrees west of GMT, thus 5 hours earlier than GMT.
Important Lines of Longitude
Man-made islands of Dubai
What is the relative location of...?
Types of Regions
Formal or Uniform Regions
defined by some uniform cultural or physical characteristics (ex: Latin America, Bible Belt).
Has a focal point, often a city, & is org. space surrounding that central location (ex: San Fran. Bay Area, NYC).
Perceptual or Vernacular Region
How people perceive a region in their minds (ex: defining the South, Midwest).
Connectivity (Delta Service Map)
the interconnectedness between places depends upon
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from other locations.
: Directness of routes linking pairs of places.
Humans interacting on the earth.
Models of human interaction
Gravity model, central place theory
Foreign trade, common markets
Sense of place:
infusing a place with meaning and emotion.
Perception of place:
belief or understanding of what a place is like, often based on books, movies, stories, or pictures.
Where Californian students prefer to live
Where Pennsylvanian students prefer to live
Key Question 3
How do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
What are Geographic Questions?
What is Human Geography?
Geographic Information System (GIS):
a collection of computer hardware and software that permits storage and analysis of layers of spatial data.
Tell a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution, or its movement.
What are thematic maps used for?
Show locations of places and geographic features
What are reference maps used for?
Two Types of Maps
a method of collecting data by instruments that are physically distant from the area of study.
Why are Geographers Concerned with Scale and Connectedness?
Types of Diffusion
the process of dissemination (spreading out), the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth to other areas.
What slows/prevents diffusion?
Large or small scale map?
Scale is the territorial extent of something.
The observations we make and the context we see vary across scales, such as:
Because Hindus believe cows are holy, cows often roam the streets in villages and towns. The McDonalds restaurants in India feature veggie burgers.
Types of Diffusion
Ex: one inch = one mile is more detailed than one inch = one hundred miles
1:1 or 1:100
Larger areas = smaller scale
Smaller areas = larger scale
idea or innovation spreads outward from the hearth
spreads to most linked people or places first.
idea promotes a local experiment or change in the way people do things.
movement of individuals who carry an idea or innovation with them to a new, perhaps distant locale.
Global Shipping Lanes
Chaotic set of processes and outcomes
Created by people
Across scales and borders
Trade as backbone
Arguments generally in terms of trade
Free-trade role in raising well-being
What Is Globalization, and What Role Do Networks Play in Globalization?
Set of interconnected nodes without a center (Manuel Castells)
Ideally horizontally structured with equal power in all parts
Enable globalization to occur
Inequality in access to information between core and periphery
Characteristics of Globalization
World Economic Forum: An annual meeting held in Davos, Switzerland, with participants typically
Champions of free trade
Representatives of large corporations
World Social Forum
Network of antiglobalizationists
Find alternatives to decisions of World Economic Forum
Goals of Globalization
Goode's Homosoline Projection