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Copy of GLobalisation - the impacts on education

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Gemma Whapham

on 7 September 2015

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Transcript of Copy of GLobalisation - the impacts on education

Globalisation - the impacts on education
by Gemma Whapham, Lacey Beutel, Melissa Bowers and Kate Harding
Presented by Gemma Whapham, Melissa Bowers, Lacey Beutel and Kate Harding
Globalisation – the impacts on education
“Education is a globalising force”


What is the curriculum and how does it affect globalisation?
Impacts of globalisation on curriculum
What does the term globalisation mean?
Write down three terms that come to mind when thinking about this topic.
Globalisation defined
“A set of processes by which the world is rapidly being intergrated into one economic space via increased international trade; the internationalisation of production and financial markets, the internationalisation of a commodity culture promoted by an increasingly networked global communication system”
(Gibson-Graham, 2006)
Consider that students have access to all of these services and information.

What does this mean to you as a teacher?
Kalkaji project
“Hole in the wall”
Impacts of globalisation on pedagogy
Impacts of globalisation on assessment
What can we do as educators?
Translate global competence into classroom practice
Enable students investigate and understand the world further than their immediate environment
Allow students understand the perspectives of others
Enable students communicate ideas actively with a diverse audience
Teaching for Global Competence
Introduce topics of both local and global importance
Encourage connection of local and global issues
Deep social, emotional and cognitive engagement of students
Interdisciplinary grounding of learning
Allow for informative feedback
Meaning of Quality Teaching in a Global Context
Culturally inclusive learning environments
Socioeconomic classes
Life-embedded teaching
Teaching about world population
Globally Competent Teaching Continuum (GCTC)
Lesson plans
Use of technology (videos, educational games)
Professional development
Knowledge of Globally Competent Teachers
Personal knowledge
Sociological knowledge

Social justice
Cultural relevance
Conflict resolution
Contextual knowledge
Understanding students
Understanding societies
Pedagogical knowledge
Learning theories
Teaching methods
Curriculum development
Teaching philosophy
Reference List:
Scenario activity
Abilities of Globally Competent Teachers
Ability to create a learning environment that values global engagement and diversity
Ability to integrate learning processes and experiences
Ability to generate educational content that is aligned with global explorations
Ability to facilitate intercultural or international conversations among students
Ability to assess the global competence of students
Adetunji, A., Bamidele, E., Awodele, B. & Ojediran, I. (2013). The Impact of Glabalisation on Curriculum Innovation in the New Millennium. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (2), 2281-2284. doi: 10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n2p471

Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (2010).
The Shape of the Australian Curriculum
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Badley, G. (2000). Developing Globally-Competent Teachers. Innovations In Education & Training International, 37(3), 244-253.

Bakir, A. (2015, January). Effective Teaching: Perspectives and Insights. In Proceedings of the 2010 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 159-159). Springer International Publishing. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-11797-3_93

Banks, J. A. (2009). Diversity and Citizenship Education in Multicultural Nations∗. Multicultural Education Review, 1(1), 1-28. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23770031.2009.11102861#.Vefz5vfO3b0

Castles, S. (2003). Towards a sociology of forced migration and social transformation. Sociology, 37(1), 13-34. doi: 10.1177/0038038503037001384

Connell, R. (2013). The neoliberal cascade and education: An essay on the market agenda and its consequences. Critical Studies in Education, 54(2), 99-112.

Cowen, R., & Kazamias, A.M. (2009). International Handbook of Comparative Education. New York, N.Y.: Springer Science and Business Media.

Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2006). Imagining and enacting a post capitalist feminist economic politics. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 72-78

Giddens, A. (2003). Globalisation. Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. New York, NY: Routledge.
Goldin, I. Ted Talks (2009, October 29). Navigating our global future [Video file]. Retrieved from

Goldstein, H. A. (2014). The Globalization of Higher Education. Journal Of Regional Science, 54(3), 528-531.

Hartley, D., & Whitehead, M. (2006). Teacher Education: Globalisation, standards and teacher education. Oxon, England: Taylor & Francis.

Kumar, I, A., & Parveen, S. (2013). Teacher Education in the Age of Globalization. Research Journal of Educational Sciences, 1(1), 8-12.

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Mitra, S. (2011). Hole-in-the-wall: Lighting the spark of learning. Retrieved from www.hole-in-the-wall.com

Olaya, A., & Gómez, L. F. (2013). Exploring EFL pre-service teachers' experience with cultural content and intercultural communicative competence at three colombian universities. Profile, 15(2), 49-67. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1677616208?accountid=13380

Omoregie, N. (2007). The Globally Competent Teacher In Secondary Level Of Education. Education, 128(1), 3-9.
Teaching is an interactive and normative human process
Globalisation provides students with:
adequate skills
opportunities to work and live together
understand and interpret the world
Cultural differences
Economic differences
Political differences
Food for thought...
Globalisation has allowed educators from all over the world to share insights and strategies as they were in the same locality.
It compels the stakeholders in the field to compare and contrast the policies in the different countries.
The globalisation of education comes with many benefits and detriments.
The changes in education because of globalisation affect all the stakeholders in that sector including the pre-service teachers.
The stakeholders in education have varying perceptions in regards to globalisation of education.
Some are of the opinion that it improves the education sector while others disagree.
The globalisation of education is a force to reckon with in the twenty-first century and it is clear that it will continue.
Theories behind the globalisation of education
Hyperglobalists approach
This approach considers the normal factors that drive globalisation.
Comparative considerations compel educators to improve their education systems to match those of other countries.
Additionally, the global market has more effect on education compared to the national government (Parjanadze, 2009).
Education liberalisation is the major driving force in this approach (Parjanadze, 2009).
The skeptical approach
According to this theory, the national governments have influence in the globalisation of education.
The regulators are keen to ensure that standardisation of education is possible.
Good education systems are critical in the economic competitiveness of the nations (Zamen, 2014).
Transformational approach
The global interconnectedness today allows the education stakeholders to borrow ideas from each other.
Global forces and institutions have a lot of influence on the education sector across the world.
Commonality of issues facing education is the main force behind the interconnectedness and borrowing of ideas (Zamen, 2014).
The positives of globalisation of education
Globalisation in education leads to the implementation of uniform standards.
There are international influential organisations that are tasked with the role of implementing such standards.
Most countries are willing to implement policies that will allow them to compete with other nations in education (Zajda & Geo-JaJa, 2010).
Quality assessment
The Globalisation of education comes with the need to evaluate education systems to confirm that they abide by the internationally acceptable standards.
Governments set measures to ensure that their education systems provide quality education (Zadja & Rust, 2010).
Inter-cultural understanding
Individuals from different parts of the world learn more about the cultural groups in the world.
Inter-cultural understanding makes it possible for people from different countries to interact and work together effectively (Zadja & Rust, 2010).
The negatives of globalisation on education
Possible loss of cultural identity
The interconnectedness may lead to the loss of some cultures.
Globalisation is making some cultures prominent as compared to some, especially the western nations ones.
The western culture is now common all over the world, including the conservative nations of East Asia (Cowen & Kazamias, 2009).
The language problem
The language barrier is a common issue in the globalisation of education.
On that light, some languages are becoming common and play a role in eroding some traditional languages.
New parents in most parts of the world are preferring to teach their children the English language , which is the most common. Such children may fail to understand their native language fully (Cowen & Kazamias, 2009).
How globalisation of education affects Educators
Improved knowledge
Teachers have to learn and understand education strategies and mechanisms on a global scale.
They have to keep learning to understand new ways of teaching.
The teachers have to appreciate diversity and understand how to handle the students depending on their culture, national origin, and color (Sarsani, 2006).
The teachers have to compete with their colleagues not only in their nation, but globally.
Educators that want to succeed have to be doing intensive research regarding education to understand the new trends in the now dynamic field.
Globalisation of education has led to improved teacher development, which necessitates regular trainings for improvement purposes (Hartley & Whitehead, 2006).
What globalisation of education means to pre-service teachers
They have more workload compared to the older generation of teachers for they have to learn more regarding globalisation in their field (Kumar & Parveen, 2013).
They have to keep researching to understand the changes in the education sector.
These teachers have more employment opportunities as they have a better understanding on education (global scale).
Pre-service teachers can provide more insights on the required policy changes to make education in their native country and across the world better.
They have no reason for failure in education because they are believed to be more competent, skilled, and knowledgeable (Kumar & Parveen, 2013).
Globalisation of education has varied effects on the education sector.
The process if facilitated by three common globalisation theories.
It has made education better to some extent.
The globalisation of education also has some possible negative effects.
Overall, the education systems are bound to improve with globalisation of education.
The pre-service teachers, the future educators have better training, skills, and knowledge.
How does globalisation affect us as teachers?
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Parjanadze, N. (2009). Globalisation Theories and Their Effect on Education. IBSU Scientific Journal 3(2), 77-88.

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Quezada, R. L. (2012). Internationalization of teacher education: Creating globally competent teachers and teacher educators for the 21st century. London: Routledge

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21st Century Enducation
Your class; 3 of your students are refugees from different war torn countries, 2 children are from China but are only in your class temporarily as their parents are working in Australia for the year, you have 1 indigenous child for whom English is their second language, 1 visually impaired, 2 children have been diagnosed with a learning disorder and 2 have been identified as gifted.
How would you cater for the diversity of students in this classroom?
What types of teaching strategies would you use?
Please share your responses on the blackboard discussion board.

How did standardised assessment become so prevalent?
Possible effects of standardised assessment.
Supply and Demand of Jobs
New job markets ----> necessity to distinguish aptitude, intelligence and skills required for specific jobs ----> qualification frameworks created.
Qualifications codify and certify knowledge.
Hierarchies exist within qualifications.
Too great of a supply of employees, means employers can select the most qualified.
Too few supply of employees, means employers fight for them.

Supply and Demand of Qualifications
As availability and access to education increase ----> the demand for an advantage increases
Another demand for advantage arises when the previous one becomes too accessible.
As more advanced and coveted qualifications arise, the significance of lower qualifications are reduced.
Assessment ----> Qualification ----> Opportunities
Progression depends on assessment.
Intelligence, ability and talent required for progression is ascertained through assessment
Two examples shown by Bates (2011) –
1) A grade one student will not progress through to grade two unless they pass certain assessments
2) Students may not be accepted into universities unless they graduated with certain scores from certain schools.
Quality Control
McClelland (2007) suggests ‘quality control issues in assessment are essential in marketing the school; parents will want to know the assessment results are reliable and hold up well to schools of similar standing.’
New job market = demand for skilled employees = necessity for qualifications = competitiveness of qualification > standardised testing.
All students and institutions ranked on the same spectrum.
New Jobs ----> New Skills ----> New Curriculum ----> New Assessment
Similar to the shift from agrarian to industrial production.
Changes the way people live, work, though and almost all aspects of life.
Demand for new skills, ways of thinking, and working which required a renewed educational system.
According to Griffin, McGaw & Care (2012), the skills required for this new era include
Prominence and Issues
The Cambridge International Examination produce 5.7 million question papers every year.
All Queensland high school students work is moderated twice before the grade is awarded.
External standardised assessment such as NAPLAN only assess English, Mathematics and Science.
Consequences of Standardised Testing
A study in Japan linked academic competition to high rates of juvenile delinquency, bullying and teen suicide (Flinders, 2009).
High stakes tests in the US, UK and Australia are found to have negative consequences such as
1. Narrowing the curriculum focus
2. Increasing student and teacher anxiety
3. Promoting direct teaching methods
4. Decrease in student motivation and
5. The creation of classroom environments that are less inclusive.
“Beazley (1992) states…international education is an increasingly important part of Australia’s international relations. It uniquely spans the cultural, economic and interpersonal dimensions of international relations. It assists cultural understanding for all parties involved. It enriches Australia’s education and training systems and the wider Australian society by encouraging a more international outlook”.
Globalisation and Pre-service Teachers
Globalisation and Pre-service Teachers
Classrooms are becoming more multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-racial, multi-religious and multi-lingual.
Need to be able to teach in a diverse classroom, but also prepare our students to become future global citizens.
Papastephanou, Christou, & Gregoriou, (2013) aruge pre-service teachers must learn how to be life-long researchers in order to play a more active role in being up to date and aware of theoretical issues that are at stake.
Cultural Understandings
Pre-service teachers are aware only of the observable and surface elements of culture, and never referred to aspects of deep culture such as relationships, culture schock, cultural misunderstanding, relations of power, social class, politeness, discrimination, otherness, attitudes to life and identity (Olaya & Gómez, 2013).
Critical perspectives are imperative to move forward, which has been found to be low overall in pre-service teachers (Bakir, 2015).
How to Improve and looking elsewhere
Pre-service teachers must not only make the effort to engage and learn as much as possible from classes relating to globalisation but also take responsibility for their own intercultural learning, effectively preparing themselves for a globalised world and classroom.
‘Teachers must develop reflective cultural, national, and global identifications themselves if they are to help students become thoughtful, caring and reflective citizens in a multicultural world society (Banks, 2008, p317).’
Pre-service teachers must learn about culture and cultural diversity and develop skills in intercultural interaction and communication that will help them teach throughout their careers (Rio, Millward, Anderson & Stephenson, 2008).
Prepare them to acknowledge the multiple worldviews of the diverse student population the will teach (Price-Dennis & Souto-Manning, 2011).
Pre-service teachers must look outside their degree and immerse themselves in rich intercultural experiences in order to expand and enhance the skillset they will need to teach the progressively diverse classroom they will undoubtedly encounter..
People with strong cultural knowledge and background are in an advantageous position.
Creativity and innovation; critical thinking, problem solving and decision making; learning to learn and metacognition; communication and collaboration; information literacy and ICT literacy; citizenship, both local and global; life and career skills; personal and social responsibility – including cultural awareness and competence.
Where are these skills assessed….?
As a teacher would you teach for lifelong skills and valuable knowledge or for assessment?
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