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The effects of using ICT

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Georgina Wong

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of The effects of using ICT

Social effects on I.C.T:
The PC (Personal Computer) was developed in the early 1980s. Before this date, computers were huge, expensive machines that only a few, large businesses owned. Now PCs are found on almost every desk in every office, all over the world. The advancement in technology has created both increased employment and unemployment.
Eye Strain

This problem can be solved:

A health issue that can occur after using computers for a long time is eye-strain, also known is tiredness of the eyes.
This is caused by looking at a monitor. The muscles that focus your eyes do not move, and so get tired and painful. Eye-strain can also cause headaches.

Use an anti-glare filter in front of the monitor to cut down on screen reflections that can also tire the eyes.
The effects of using ICT
Safety Issues
Health effects of ICT
Trailing Cables
Take regular breaks.
Look away from the monitor at regular intervals – re-focus on distant or close objects to exercise the muscles in the eye.
Back and Neck Ache
Many people suffer from back and neck pain after working at a computer for a long time. This is usually due to them having a bad sitting posture.

This problem can be solved:
Use an adjustable, ergonomic chair, and take the time to set it up properly.
The computer keyboard and monitor should be at the correct height for the seated person (keyboard lower than the elbow, top of monitor at eye level).
Take regular breaks: get up, walk around, stretch your muscles
Computer equipment is often connected to lots of cables: power, network, etc.

If these cables are lying on the floor, they can cause people to trip over them.

Solution: Place cables inside cable ducts, or under the carpet / flooring.
Any repetitive movement (same movement over and over again) can result in a health problem called repetitive strain injury (RSI).

In particular, typing and using a mouse for long periods are common causes of RSI in the wrist (it is often called carpal-tunnel syndrome).
This problem can be solved:
Use a wrist-rest to support the wrists while typing and when using the mouse.
Take regular breaks from typing or using the mouse.
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) in Wrists and Hands
Hacking and Hackers
What is Hacking?
The word 'hacking' has several different meanings. But in the context of ICT, it is normally taken to mean breaking in to a computer system without the owners permission.
Can your computer be Protected?
Just as in the real world, there is no guaranteed way to stop someone breaking into a building there is also no guaranteed way to stop someone breaking into a computer system. However, you can make it difficult enough so that a hacker moves on and looks for an easier target.

You should:
Use strong passwords to protect your user login account
Never reveal your login password to anyone else
Place a firewall between your computer and any network
Disconnect from networks when you are not using them
Encrypt any sensitive information (just in case they get in).
Areas of Increased Unemployment:
Some jobs have been lost as a result of computers being used to do the same work that people used to do.
If a lot of information about you is stolen, a hacker could use this to impersonate you on-line.
They might apply for new credit cards, take out bank loans, buy cars, etc. all in your name.

This is known as identity theft.
The effects of ICT
I need a pay rise
Newspaper Printing
It used to take a team of highly skilled printers to typeset (layout) a newspaper page and to then print thousands of newspapers. The same task can now be performed far more quickly using computers with DTP software and computer-controlled printing presses.
Many factories now have fully automated production lines. Instead of using people to build things, computer-controlled robots are used. Robots can run day and night, never needing a break, and don’t need to be paid! (Although the robots cost a lot to purchase, in the long-term the factory saves money.)
Secretarial Work
Offices used to employee many secretaries to produce the documents required for the business to run. Now people have personal computers, they tend to type and print their own documents.
Accounting Clerks
Companies once had large departments full of people whose job it was to do calculations (e.g. profit, loss, billing, etc.) A personal computer running a spreadsheet can now do the same work.
IT Technicians
All of the computers in a business need to be maintained: hardware fixed, software installed, etc.

Computer Programmers
All of the software that is now used by businesses has to be created by computer programmers. Hundreds of thousands of people are now employed in the 'software industry'

Web Designers
Much of modern business is conducted on-line, and company websites are very important. Company websites need to be designed and built which is the role of web designers.

Help-Desk Staff
People often need help using computers, and software applications. Computer and software company have help-desks staffed by trained operators who can give advice.
Some examples of areas where jobs have been created:
Areas of Increased Employment:
Although many employment areas have suffered job losses, other areas have grown and jobs have been created. Sometimes people who have lost their old job have been able to re-train and get a new job in one of these growth areas.
Computerising the Workplace - Good or Bad?
As you have seen above, many jobs have changed over the past 30 years. But overall, is this a good thing, or a bad thing? It depends who you ask of course - If someone has lost their job because the work is now being done by a computer, that person will probably see it as a bad thing!

But, on the whole, the computerisation of repetitive, menial tasks (such as working on a factory production line, or calculating endless financial results) has freed people to do more pleasant, less dangerous jobs.

There are downsides though. Many people can now access their office network from home via The Internet. This means they can work from home (remote working) which sounds pretty nice. However it often results in people working longer hours and missing out on home life.
Microprocessor-Controlled Devices in the Home
A microprocessor is a small CPU built into a single 'chip.'
Very powerful microprocessors can be found in PCs (the Core 2 Quad processor made by Intel is one example) but smaller, less powerful microprocessors can be found in many everyday devices in our homes.
Typically, a special type of microprocessor, called a microcontroller, is used in everyday devices.
In a single ‘chip’, a microcontroller contains:
Some RAM
Some ROM (Used for storing the devices software)

Many of the electronic devices that we use contain a microprocessor...
Some devices are used for entertainment:
Games consoles
DVD players
MP3 players
Examples of Microprocessor-Controlled Devices:

Often microcontrollers also contain ADCs and DACs to allow easy connection to devices such as sensors and actuators.
Some devices help to make our lives easier (labour-saving devices):
Programmable microwave ovens
Programmable washing machines
Home security systems
Mobile telephones
Look at the list of devices above. Now try to imagine living without them - washing your clothes by hand! Life would be a lot tougher.

Microprocessor-controlled devices mean that we have more leisure time to relax and enjoy ourselves instead of doing household chores.

We are able to communicate with people very easily using computers, mobile phones, etc. We can become part of online social networks, making friends with people from all over the world.

Computers and Internet connections mean that many of the tasks that involved us leaving the house, for example, shopping for music, clothes or food, can now be done on-line.

Online shopping gives us more choice of products and saves us time. It is also great from those who are unable to get out of the house easily, such as the elderly, or the disabled.
The Effect of These Devices on Our Lives
Malware and Viruses
Malware is short for malicious software.

Malware is the name given to any software that could harm a computer system, interfere with a user's data, or make the computer perform actions without the owner's knowledge or permission.

Basically malware is software that you really don't want to have on your computer!

People can end up with malware installed on their computer system in a variety of ways:
Installing software that seems ok, but has malware hidden inside (know as a 'Trojan Horse').
Having their computer hacked, and the software installed by the hacker.
Visiting dodgy websites and clicking on infected links
The computer being infected by a computer virus
What is software copyright?
Why do hackers hack?
When someone creates an original piece of software, that person then holds something called the copyright for that software. (This is also true when people create books, films and songs.)

Holding the copyright for software means that you have the protection of the law if anyone tries to steal your software.

Under copyright law, people must not:
Copy the software for other people
Lend the software to other people
Rent the software to other people
Install the software on a network when other users can access it (unless it is a special ‘network’ version)
If someone breaks the copyright, they can be punished by fines or even by imprisonment.

The reason for this is that creating software can involve the work of many people and may take thousands of hours. It is only fair that all of this effort is protected
A hacker may break into a system just out of curiosity or for the challenge - can they get through the system’s defences? But, it is more likely that they are breaking in to access data, usually because the data has value.
For example, if a hacker enters your computer and steals financial information such as your credit card number, or the password to your bank account, they could use that information to make purchases.
Illegally copying software is often referred to as software piracy.

If you make a copy of a game for a friend, get the latest version of Windows from a dodgy shop, or ‘borrow’ some software from work, you are probably breaking the law.
The original World-Wide Web ('The Web', WWW, or 'Web 1.0') was a collection of mostly static websites that published information. You could visit the sites, read the webpages, look at the pictures, but you couldn't really interact with the site: you couldn't login, leave comments, tag images, discuss things, etc. The original Web was a mostly one-way experience where information was delivered to you.

'Web 2.0' (pronounced "web two-point-oh") is the (slightly annoying) name given to the the recent development of interactive websites that are quite different to the old, static websites.

Many websites on the Web today allow users to:
share information (e.g. notes and photos on Facebook)
interact (add comments, chat, etc.)
collaborate on content (e.g. creating pages on Wikipedia)
create their own content (e.g. videos on YouTube)
Web 2.0 is often called the 'Social Web' because of the way that users can interact and share. It's also been called the 'Read-Write Web' because much of the content is now written by users (they're not just reading)

What is Web 2.0?
Intenet Use Issues
The Internet and World Wide Web are a fantastic resource for finding and sharing information. The Web contains literally billions of web pages containing information about every topic imaginable.

However we need to take care when using the Internet to look for information, or to send information...
A computer virus is a piece of software that can 'infect' a computer (install itself) and copy itself to other computers, without the users knowledge or permission.
Computer Viruses
Install anti-virus software and keep it up-to-date (this is the most important thing you can do!)
Install anti-malware software (stops software installing without your knowledge)
Never download and install software from the Internet unless you are certain it is from a source you can trust
Don’t open e-mail attachments unless you have scanned them (even a file that seems to be a picture can contain a virus)
Don’t click links in websites that seem suspicious (if a site is offering prizes / free stuff / etc. be suspicious!)
If someone gives you a memory stick or CD-ROM, run a virus scan on it before opening any files.
Don’t trust cracked versions of software from file-sharing sites (often these have viruses and other malware added to them - a Trojan horse)
How Can a Computer Be Protected from Viruses?
Internet Use Issues
The Internet and World Wide Web are a fantastic resource for finding and sharing information. The Web contains literally billions of web pages containing information about every topic imaginable.

However we need to take care when using the Internet to look for information, or to send information...
Reliability of information
A blog is a website where someone (usually a normal person - not a professional writer) writes about a topic. Blogs can be personal (someone writing about their own life, or their personal views), based on an interest (e.g. football), or some businesses also use blogs to write about new products, etc.
A blog allows someone to be a writer and publisher on the Web with very little effort or cost. A blog can be setup with just a few clicks, whereas a few years ago you'd need a lot of technical knowledge to create your own website. Many blogs have systems that allow readers to leave comments and begin discussions connected with the blog posts. Blogging (the act of writing a blog) has become very popular over the past decade or so (there are well over 200 million unique blogs). Some blogs are very popular and have hundreds of thousands of readers, but many are only read by a tiny number of readers (probably just the writer's family and friends!) Blogs allow people to publish their views and opinions very easily, without anyone else checking what they are writing. For this reason, it is very important that you do not take the viewpoints expressed on blogs as facts - they are just one person's opinion and maybe factually very wrong.
The Internet and web are not regulated. Anyone can create a webpage.
In many ways this is a good thing. It means that corrupt organisations or governments, who have always been able to hide details of their activities, are no longer able to do so. When bad things happen, people write about it on the Web and the world gets to know, and hopefully do something about it.
NOTE TO SELF: get a good lawyer
Blogs and blogging
But it’s also a bad thing. It means that people or organisations can easily spread lies and hatred. There are thousands of websites containing bigoted viewpoints, and thousands more that are full of information that is biased, inaccurate, or just plain wrong.

A wiki is a website that allows users to collaborate (work together) to create the content. The pages of a wiki can be edited by everyone (or those who have the password) so that different people can add to the page, edit things, fix errors, etc.

So... which information do you trust?
Check several sources of information (go to lots of different websites). If they all say them same thing, it is likely to be true
The word 'blog' is an abbreviation of 'web log'. A 'log' is a place where a list of information is written down, so a 'web log' is a place where people write a list of things on the Web.
Each entry on a blog is called a post.
Stick to websites that belong to trusted organisations. If the website address ends in .gov.uk (the UK government site) it is more likely to be reliable than one like www.tomiscool.net
I love my job

Look at the spelling and grammar used. Reliable websites are usually checked for errors. Too many spelling errors mean it’s probably not to be trusted.
One form of blogging, where people publish very short posts, is known as 'Micro-blogging'. The most well-known micro-blog is Twitter. Many famous celebrities use Twitter to let the world know what they are up to, e.g.
Undesirable Information
Wikis often automatically create automatic links between pages. E.g. if a wiki page exists called 'Camels' and you write the word 'camel', the word will become a link to the Camel page. This feature means that wikis are very useful for creating sites containing lots of connected information.
In addition to the Web being full of websites with inaccurate information, there are also a huge number of websites that contain highly offensive, or illegal material.
Avoiding this type of material can be tricky. Many organisations such as schools, some governments (e.g. for religious reasons), and also many parents, make use of web page filtering software. This software attempts to prevent offensive and illegal material being accessed.
Media Uploading Sites
There are many websites that allow users to create, upload and share their own media such as photos, music or video. Usually other users can rate or comment on the media that is uploaded leading to these sites often being referred to as 'Social Media' sites.
All media upload sites have rules about the type of media that you can upload - you have to either own the copyright to the image / music / video yourself, or have permission from the copyright owner.
Social Networks
A social network website is a site that allows user to connect with other users who are friends / relatives, or who share similar interests.

Connected users can then share information / pictures / files with each other, send messages, chat, etc.
Examples of popular social networking sites:
Email Spam
'Spam' is the name given to unsolicited e-mails (ones sent without being asked for).
Spam Emails usually contain adverts for new products:
Spilt Drinks or Food
If any liquids are spilt on electrical equipment, such a s a computer, it can result in damage to the equipment, or an electric shock to the user.
Keep drinks and food away from computers!

It is best to avoid eating and drinking near to computer equipment. Food crumbs can prevent a computer mouse or keyboard from working properly. Any spilt liquids are a possible fire risk near electrical equipment and can easily ruin items such as floppy disks.
Spam is a huge problem. It is estimated that 97% of all e-mail messages sent is spam. That's several hundred billion spam e-mails every day!

There have always been dishonest people who try to con, money from others. With the rise of the Internet, and e-mail in particular, these 'con-artists' have a new way to reach millions of potential victims. 'Phishing' is the nickname given to the sending of fraudulent e-mails that attempt to trick people into revealing details about their bank accounts, or other online accounts The 'phishers' then use these bank details to login to the victim's bank account and take their money. This is an example of a phishing e-mail...

The e-mail looks very convincing. It even has the bank's logo. And it sounds urgent and scary... someone has tried to take money from our bank account! What should we do?! This is exactly the scare tactic that phishers use to make people panic.
if you were to click the link, you would be taken to a fake bank website. Then if you were to enter your login details, these would be recorded by the phishers and used to empty your real bank account.
'Pharming' is similar to phishing, but instead of deceiving you (as phishing does), a pharming attack deceives your computer.

In a pharming attack, when you type in a completely genuine URL (e.g. for your online banking website), your computer is tricked into displaying a fake website (often a very accurate copy).

Then, when you try to login to the fake website, your username / password are recorded and used to take money from your real bank account.

It is very difficult to spot pharming attacks, because to the user everything seems to be normal.
The name 'pharming' is a mix of the terms 'phishing' and 'farming'.
Whereas phishing requires 'bait', pharming doesn't!
Certain settings in your computer may be altered when your computer is infected with malware.
Internet developements
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