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Transcript of Metabolic Poisons
Metabolic Poisons work by inhibiting the action of enzymes involved in Metabolic processes, causing a disturbance in the organism in its ability to function.
Substances that target neurotransmission/muscle contraction or substances that burn or ‘digest’ tissue.
They can be commonly referred to as "enzyme inhibitors" as they prevent enzymes from performing their necessary functions.
Electron Transport System Inhibitors (ETS Inhibitors)
Overview of Cellular Respiration
Organic Compounds + Oxygen
Cells extract oxygen from the blood and transform the energy in sugar molecules into a useful form of energy for cells.
Macromolecules (mostly proteins) that serve as catalysts, agents that increase the rate of the reaction without being consumed within the reaction.
Molecules that bind to an enzyme to decrease their activity.
- Substances that cause disturbances or interfere with normal bodily functions.
Substances that interfere with Energy Metabolism.
A condition in which rate of electron transport can no longer be regulated by an intact chemiosmotic gradient.
Antibiotic that binds to ATP synthase and blocks off the proton channel, inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation.
For more information on Metabolic Poisons, check out our wiki page!
Or, you can check out these pages!
Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
C6H12O6 + 6 O2
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy (ATP + Heat)
Part 1: Glycolysis
Occurs in the cytoplasm
2 molecules of ATP
4 molecules of
Part 2: Krebs Cycle
Occurs in the
Pyruvate (2 per glucose)
2 ATP (via substrate-level
Part 3: Electron Transport Chain
Occurs in the
Overall Output of Respiration: Glucose 36-38 ATP
What are they?
What are the different types?
3 main types:
: Binds somewhere on the electron transport chain, preventing electrons from being passed from one carrier to the next.
: The rate of electron transport can no longer be regulated by an intact chemiosmotic gradient.
Binds to ATP synthase and blocks the proton channel, inhibits oxidative phosphorylation.
- Binds to ETS, prevents electrons from being passed from one carrier to the next.
- They all act specifically, in which each inhibitor binds a particular complex in the ETS
- Irreversible inhibition: Results in a complete stoppage of respiration via the blocked pathway.
- Competitive Inhibition allows some oxygen consumption, but prevents maintenance of a chemiosmotic gradient. Hence, the addition of ADP can have no effect on respiration.
- Electron transport inhibitor can block respiration specifically along the NADH pathway, along the succinate pathway, or along the pathway that is common to both routes of electron entry.
Carbonyl cyanide p-[rifluoromethoxyl]-phenyl-hydrozone (FCCP)
- Rate of electron transport can no longer be regulated by an intact chemiosmotic gradient.
- Different from Electron Transport System inhibition, since bypassing the block restores the gradient.
- ETS is uninhibited due to complete and irreversible dissipation of the chemiosmotic gradient.
- Acts by binding ATP synthase in such a way as to block the proton channel.
- Mechanism by which oligomycin inhibits oxidative phosphorylation.
- No effect on state IV respiration, that is, it has no direct effect on electron transport or the chemiosmotic gradient, but prevents state III respiration completely.
- Effects take awhile to be shown.