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Copy of FEAR OF MISSING OUT

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by

Christine Nguyen

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Copy of FEAR OF MISSING OUT

Variables & Survey Items
Preliminary & Moderation Analyses
What did we discover?
Method
Descriptive Results
Preliminary Analyses
Results
Moderation Analyses
Social Media Intensity

M
= 3.42,
SD
= 0.95

Fear of Missing out

M
= 2.84,
SD
= 0.8

Life Satisfaction

M
= 3.34,
SD
= 0.65

(3 = average)
Thursday, June 5, 2014
Introduction: What's behind FOMO?
Did results support our hypotheses?
Discussion
Social Media Intensity & Personality in Relation
Team DOMO
Participants & Materials
Method
Participant Demographics
Materials
Exploring Hypotheses further: Gender

Discussion
58 young adults (primarily UCLA undergraduate students)

60.7% Female, 39.3% Male

Ages 18-36 (
M
= 21.52,
SD
= 2.87)

Ethnicity: 35.7% Asian, 39.3% Caucasian, 8.9% Latino, 16.2% Other

Voluntary participation
Article:
“Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out”
(Przybylski, et al., 2013).
What is "the fear of missing out"?
JWT Trend report
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
3 studies
Online survey measuring:

Social media intensity (SMI)

Fear of missing out (FOMO)

Personality traits (BIG 5)

Relationship quality (FRIEND)

Life satisfaction (LS)
Social Media Intensity
(SMI)
The intensity of involvement and usage of social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.)
Example survey item:
“Facebook has become a part of my daily routine.”
Rated on a 5-point Likert scale where
1 = strongly disagree and
5 = strongly agree
Fear of Missing Out
(FOMO)
A form of social anxiety — a compulsive concern that one might miss an opportunity for social interaction, a novel experience, profitable investment or other satisfying event.
Example survey item:
“I get worried when I find out my friends are having fun without me.”
Rated on a 5-point Likert scale where
1 = strongly disagree and
5 = strongly agree
(Przybylski et al., 2013)
Personality Traits
(BIG 5)
Five broad domains or dimensions of personality that are used to describe human personality based on the Five Factor Model, which includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Example survey item:
“I see myself as: anxious, easily upset.”
Rated on a 7-point Likert scale where
1 = strongly disagree and
5 = strongly agree
(Costa et al., 1992)
Relationship Quality
(FRIEND)
The value and depth of social relationships and feelings of connection and belonging as judged by the participant.
Example survey item:
“In general, I feel included in my group of friends.”
Rated on a 5-point Likert scale where
1 = strongly disagree and
5 = strongly agree
Life Satisfaction
(LS)
The level of contentment of one's own life as judged by the participant in terms of various aspects (e.g., sleep, appearance, academic performance, etc.)
Example survey item:
“How satisfied are you with your leisure time?”
Rated on a 5-point Likert scale where
1 = very unsatisfied and
5 = very satisfied
Design & Procedure
Method
How did we carry out the study?
Sampling Strategy:
Administered online survey (Google forms) to a non-probability sample of 58 participants
Study type: Survey study (62 items)
Validity & Reliability Measures
Method
Survey Item Reliability (Cronbach's alpha)
SMI
(alpha = 0.849, 8 items)

FOMO
(alpha = 0.860, 10 items)

FRIEND
(alpha = 0.782, 4 items)

LS
(alpha = 0.847, 11 items)

BIG 5
(used a well-known, reliable scale)
"Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out"
(Przybylski et al., 2013)
Study 1: Creating the FOMO scale
32 items after reviewing present literature

Diverse, international sample

Narrowed down to 10 item scale
Study 2: tested demographics, motivational, well-being factors related to FOMO
Study 3: tested behavioral and emotional correlates of FOMO
Young adult sample

Significant correlations:
Facebook engagement & FOMO
Positive affect & FOMO
Negative affect & FOMO
Distracted learning & FOMO
Distracted driving & FOMO

High SMI + High NEUR was
NOT
significant in predicting increased FOMO in Males (.421 significance)

High SMI was also
NOT
significant, but did show a pattern, in predicting increased FOMO in Males (.124 significance)
"Big Five" Personality Dimensions

O
penness,
M
= 5.12,
SD
= 1.10

C
onscientiousness,
M
= 5.17,
SD
= 1.44

E
xtraversion,
M
= 4.12,
SD
= 1.25

A
greeableness,
M
= 5.13,
SD
= 1.02

N
euroticism,
M
= 3.59,
SD
= 1.44


High SMI + High NEUR was significant in predicting increased FOMO in Females (.033 significance)

High SMI was significant in predicting increased FOMO in Females (.003 significance)
Social Media Intensity positively correlates with Fear of Missing Out,
r
= 0.61, p < .01

Neuroticism positively correlates with Fear of Missing Out,
r
= 0.28, p < .05

Neither Relationship Quality nor Life Satisfaction predicted Fear of Missing Out
Neuroticism does moderate the relationship between Social Media Intensity and Fear of Missing Out
Specifics:
FOMO 10-item scale
Social media engagement
Psychological need satisfaction
Overall life satisfaction
General mood
Results:
Those low in psych need satisfaction rated higher on FOMO
Those low in general mood, higher on FOMO
Those low in overall LS, high on FOMO
Significant mediation models
FOMO & The Big Five
Introduction
What does personality have to do with it?
Facebook use related to extraversion and narcissism (Ryan & Xenos, 2011)
Correlation between neuroticism and time spent on Facebook (Ryan & Xenos, 2011)
Facebook Depression? (Jelenchick, et. al., 2013)
FOMO as a social anxiety
Individuals high in neuroticism are high in fear of missing out, regardless of their social media intensity
The moderation effect of neuroticism is even more pronounced in female participants


Further explaining our overall findings...
So if I'm low in Neuroticism...
Discussion

And my SMI is low... then I should have the lowest levels of FOMO


And my SMI is high... I should have significantly higher levels of FOMO
And if I'm high in Neuroticism...

If my SMI is low, I am likely to have fairly high levels of FOMO


If my SMI is high, I am likely to have very high levels of FOMO
Confounds & Methodological Concerns
Too few males (only 22)

Overall sample size is small (N=58)

Population of college students only
National Sample vs. Southern California
Older groups / less educated

Self reported nature of study
Social desirability & self serving biases?

Difficulty for subjects to accurately recall social media use
Discussion
Future Research
Further explore Male vs. Female differences

FOMO in experimental setting?

FOMO explored on other online platforms (i.e. email)

Would interventions that help a person cope with their neurotic personality influence SMI and/or FOMO?

Do different social media platforms lead to differing SMI and/or FOMO?
Exploring both neurotic and non-neurotic folks

Does FOMO stay concrete or does it ebb & flow over time?
Study looking at subjects over a period of time (vs. snapshot like studies so far)
Discussion
Implications
Beware of investing too much time/energy on social media
More intense use of social media --> Higher FOMO
Other studies indicate being popular may lessen this effect...

Social media use can
really
affect how we feel
It's great for connecting people, but problematic if overused

FOMO is calculable - not random. It's understood and can be managed.

FOMO is not a joke, its a real form of anxiety that impairs.

Discussion
to Fear of Missing Out
Yes! Supporting evidence:
What Next?
Introduction
Examine FOMO in relation to other constructs
Big Five Personality constructs: agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, extroversion, emotional stability/neuroticism
Use a better scale for social media use/engagement
Hypotheses
Introduction
SMI
FOMO
SMI &
NEUROTICISM
FOMO
1.
2.
Differences in gender?
Original Study:
Social Media Engagement (SME)
Lacked construct validity: we didn't feel that the scale actually measured engagement in social media

Example item: How often do you log on to social media sites during lunch?
Our Study:
Social Media Intensity (SMI)
Adapted from Facebook Intensity scale (to include various platforms beyond just Facebook)

The SMI scale better reflects attachment to social media platforms and usage than the SME scale
We used a different scale to measure social media usage
Additional Reliability Measures:
Specific survey item for "Life Satisfaction":
We included
general questions
pertaining to a predictor variable section to supplement the more specific questions in survey
General survey item for "Life Satisfaction":
"How satisfied are you with life in general?"
"How satisfied are you with your performance in college?"
General questions pertaining to the variable topic were included to supplement the specific questions and ensure that the specific questions were measuring the same construct

Also to make sure that the specific questions were not merely confirming our hypotheses, but supporting them
Is there a moderation?
Males:
Females:
Variables & Means
1.
High Social Media Intensity (SMI) + High Neuroticism (NEUR) → leads to increased FOMO (p = .08)
**Trend seen, but not significant at p = .05
2.
High SMI → leads to increased FOMO (p = .000)
** Significant
After examining our original hypotheses, we also explored gender
Full transcript