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Transcript of /aids

DUring HIV Testing
Where is Testing Available?
Health Initiative for Men (HIM)
421-1033 Davie Street
604 488 1001 ext. 223 or 227

Bute Street Clinic
1170 Bute Street
604 707 2796

STI & HIV Clinic - BC Centre for Disease Control
655 West 12th Avenue
604 707 5600

safety advocacy: Prevention
of HIV/aids amongst
sex trade workers

What's the Deal?
Katherine Angustia, Katy Lau, Jennifer Suh
Myth No. 1
I can get HIV by being around people who are HIV-positive.
HIV is not spread through touch, tears, sweat, or saliva.

You cannot catch HIV by:
Breathing the same air as someone who is HIV-positive
Touching a toilet seat or doorknob handle after an HIV-positive person
Drinking from a water fountain
Hugging, kissing, or shaking hands with someone who is HIV-positive
Sharing eating utensils with an HIV-positive person
Using exercise equipment at a gym

You can get it from infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or mother's milk.

Truth No. 1
Myth No. 5
I'm HIV-positive.
my life is over.
theres nothing i can do
In the early years of the disease epidemic, the death rate from AIDS was extremely high.

But today, antiretroviral drugs allow HIV-positive people, and even those with AIDS, to live much longer, normal, and productive lives.

Additionally, awareness can help prevent spread and most importantly be infected.
Truth No. 5
Myth No. 3
You can't get HIV from oral sex.
It's true that oral sex is less risky than some other types of sex.

But you can get HIV by having oral sex with either a man or a woman who is HIV-positive especially when bodily fluids are exchanged.

Always use a latex barrier during oral sex.
Truth No. 3
Myth No. 2
I could tell if my partner was HIV-positive.
You can be HIV-positive and not have any symptoms for years.

The only way for you or your partner to know if you're HIV-positive is to get tested.
Truth No. 2
Myth No. 4
If I'm receiving treatment,
I can't spread the HIV virus
When HIV treatments work well, they can reduce the amount of virus in your blood to a level so low that it doesn't show up in blood tests.

However, virus can still be "hiding" in other areas of the body.

It is still essential to practice safe sex so others don't become HIV-positive.
Truth No. 4

No personal contact information (name, address or phone number) will be collected or stored.

A numbered testing code is provided to limit and restrict access to test results.

It is your responsibility to contact the clinic to get your result using your code.

If the test result is found negative, no followup is required.

If positive, your code number will be reported to public health (HIV is a reportable infection in BC).

If you choose to receive support from public health nurses, you will be required to retest using your real name.

HIV affects some white cells in the body called lymphocytes - which are essential to human's defense against diseases and infections
Affects humans
HIV virus attacks specifically T4 lymphocytes and makes copies of itself
AIDS is acquired after birth not genetically from your parents
Immue system of the body is needed to fight off diseases and infection
The immune system at this point is deficient. Clinically: low count of CD4+ lymphocyte
A collection of diseases. AIDS is at its final stage of HIV
HIV attacks CD4 or T cells
Body slowly suscpetible to diseases
HIV makes copies of itself
CD4+ lymphocyte count is LOW or a complicating illness develops
Sexual contact with an infected person exposing bodily fluids
Blood transfusions such as sharing needles, or blood to blood contact through wounds
Perinatal transmission before or during birth or through breastmilk
Reason for focusing on Preventing HIV amongst sex trade workers specifically
Canada Statistics
All images retrieved from Google images web search through Prezi

AIDS (n.d.) WHAT IS HIV/AIDS? Retrieved from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/what-is-hiv-aids/

Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., & Strathdee, S. A. (2010). 12 myths about HIV/AIDS and people who use drugs. The Lancet, 376(9737), 208-211. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61005-7
Check Him Out, (2011). Types of HIV Tests. Retrieved from: http://

Fielden, S., Lindegger, M., Pederson, H., McAloney, C., Krajden, M., Ogilvie,
G., & Gilbert, M. (2013). BCCDC: Evaluation Findings from the Pilot Phase of BC’s Provincial Point of Care HIV testing Program: The First 18 Months. Retrieved from: http://www.bccdc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/0A26E458-1D17-4404-AB05-A81DE8B69260/0/CPS_POC_Program_Eval_Report_20130823.pdf

Morton, B. (October 9, 2013). B.C. study shows new HIV test helps reduce spread of disease. Retrieved from http://www.vancouversun.com/health/study+shows+test+helps+reduce+spread+disease/9013928/story.html

Prevalence and Incidence in Canada. (2011). Public Health Agency of
Canada. Retrieved from http://www.catie.ca/sites/default/files/Estimates-of-HIV-Prevalence-and-Incidence-in-Canada-2011.pdf

Study reports HIV prevalence among Vancouver sex workers, IDUs, MSM.
(March 9, 2009). Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.cfenet.ubc.ca/news/in-the-news/study-reports-hiv-prevalence-among-vancouver-sex-workers-idus-msm

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2014). Lower your sexual
risk of HIV. Retrieved from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/prevention/reduce-your-risk/sexual-risk-factors/

Vancouver AIDS. (2014). Anonymous HIV Testing. Retrieved from http://

Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH). (2014). Access HIV services. Retieved
from: http://www.vch.ca/your-health/health-topics/hiv-aids/hiv-aids

Weber, A. E., Craib, K. J., Chan, K., Martindale, S., Miller, M. L., Schechter, M.
T., & Hogg, R. S. (2001). Sex trade involvement and rates of human immunodeficiency virus positivity among young gay and bisexual men. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(6), 1449-1454. doi:10.1093/ije/30.6.1449
Common Thoughts
AIDS is a death sentence
A person under Antiretrovirus treatment can't spread the virus
Homosexuals and drug users are more likely to get infected than others
HIV can't be spread through oral sex
Some Sexual Behaviour
its Risk to hiv infection
Anal Sex
Insertive Vaginal Sex
(Risks For Men)
Oral Sex
Sex Toys
If you share your toy with your partner, use a condom on the toy, and change the condom before your partner uses it
Clean your toys with soap and water, or a stronger disinfectant after each use

Incidence of HIV/AIDS have shown a steady decrease. The fact that there are still new infections coming up shows that there is still lack of awareness and lasting stigma about HIV/AIDS
Risk of contracting HIV through oral sex is low, but it is not zero risk.
Allowing a HIV-positive man to ejacualte in your mouth is the riskiest type of oral sex activity.
Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or pre-seminal fluid can contain the virus.
Open sores or cuts in your mouth increases HIV infection risk.
Reduce your risks by:
HIV infection occurs through the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis) or through small cuts or open sores on the penis.
Uncircumcised men are at greater risk of infection than circumcised men).
Your risk of HIV infection increases if you or your partner also has an STD.
Use a new condom with a water-based lubricant every time

Receptive vaginal sex (penis in the vagina) without a condom is a high-risk activity for HIV transmission.
Lining of the vagina can sometimes tear and may allow HIV to enter the body.
Your risk of HIV infection increases if you or your partner also has STD.
Many contraceptives (e.g., diaphragm, cervical cap) do not protect against HIV
Reduce risks - always use a new condom and use it correctly
Don't use a male condom and a female condom at the same time. They do not work together and could break.
Don’t use products with nonoxynol-9 (N-9), it can increases risk of HIV infection from vaginal irritation, making it easier for HIV transmission
Receptive Vaginal Sex
(Risks For Women)
The risk of getting HIV from anal sex without a condom is higher than any other sexual activity.
The receiving partner is at greater risk of getting HIV than the partner performing anal sex due to thin lining of the rectum that tears easily
HIV found in the blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, or rectal fluid of a person infected with the virus, so having your partner pull out before he ejaculates (cums) may not decrease your risk.
HIV can enter through the opening of the penis or through small cuts, abrasions, or open sores on the penis
Always use a new condom with a water-based lubricant to minimize damage to your rectum during sex and lower your risk of getting HIV and other STIs.

Figure 2. This diagram shows the prevalence rates between MSM, men who have sex with men; IDU, injection drug users; FSW; street-based sex workers in Vancouver, 1980-2006. HIV/AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia: a growing epidemic. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662822/
The prevalence rates amongst FSW,
female sex workers
, are much higher than MSM,
men who have sex.
Data shows the vulnerability that could be easily avoided through educated awareness.
25% of Canadians do not know they are HIV positive (Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange, 2014).
Sex trade workers with:
current or past history of injection drug use, and their partners
current or past history of non-injection drug use, and their partners
diagnosed sexually transmitted infection
current or past history of trading sex for money/drugs, and their clients
I don't think I have HIV
This is the wrong personality !
3 test options available in BC
(Check Him Out, 2011):
In order to combat this thinking, resources such as HIV/AIDS centres need to know. The next slide are examples of the ease of accesbility to testing locations in downtown Vancouver, where sex trade workers are visibly at work.
- can be used for routine testing
- tests for HIV antibodies
- blood is drawn from arm
- results take time
A) Early HIV (NAAT/RNA) test:
- take after high risk incidents (no/broken condom)
- tests for HIV virus
- blood is drawn from arm
- results take time
- reduces window period to only 10 - 12 days rather than 3-4 weeks
B) Standard HIV test:
C) Rapid (Point of Care) HIV test:
- useful for routine screening
- detects HIV antibodies, not virus
- easily done
- quick results within minutes
- reduces spread of virus (Morton, 2013)
- wider accessibility
- done anonymously
what to expect during rapid test:
Short clip demonstrating Rapid (Point of Care) HIV testing at a clinic in Victoria, BC
Figure 3. The map locates where HIV/AIDS Service Organizations are. The various locations makes it easily accesible for sex trade workers and those HIV-positive people. AIDS (n.d.). 411 AIDS Vancouver. https://aso411.ca/en/Default.aspx
Who should be testing?

Ask your family doctor about testing
Medical clinics - 8 locations in Downtown (+ more)
Medicine Shoppe Pharmacy @ 2 locations
smartsexresources.com lists all clinics by city and services
HIV screening/testing for awareness & Early detection
what types of testing are there?
how much does testing cost?
Its okay to if I get HIV, theres a treatment
Testing is FREE and available to all.
Figure 6. The above diagram displays the prevalence rate of HIV in Canada. There has been steady rise despite the decrease in incidence rates. Retrieved from http://www.catie.ca/sites/default/files/Estimates-of-HIV-Prevalence-and-Incidence-in-Canada-2011.pdf
- avoiding having your partner ejaculate in your mouth
- using dental dams and nonlubricated condoms as barriers between your mouth and their genitals
(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2014)
(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2014)
(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2014)
(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2014)
(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2014)
Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Canada has gone up
REASONS Why nurses need to promote testing/screening
(Vancover AIDS, 2014)
Early detection means:

Early start on treatment and better outcomes
Protecting yourself and those you love
Better chance of managing the virus and living a longer, healthier life
Fielden et al. (2013) reported "...over 30% of new HIV diagnoses were detected using POC [rapid] HIV testing..." (p. 25).
Since the start of the province-wide testing program, over 30,000 rapid HIV POC tests were distributed (Fielden et al., 2013).

Reasons for debunking myths
Additionally, being aware of one's health makes them a step closer to being proactive about enhancing their health
Part 2
why sex trade workers need advocates, educators and hiv testing For prevention

(Breyer et a., 2010)
(Breyer et a., 2010)
(Breyer et a., 2010)
(Breyer et a., 2010)
(Breyer et a., 2010)
Not everyone is aware or can comprehend transmission of HIV/AIDS. By asking and talking about common myths, we can break the barrier of misunderstanding.

Education is awareness and nurses are front line care in understanding their story and aiding them
*highly recommended
Increased vulnerability to HIV infection is related to poverty, unemployment, unfavourable living conditions, substance use, physical abuse, and sexual risk behaviour (Weber et al., 2001)

Money recieved to perform unprotected sex acts are means to support themselves, family members or an addiction.

Some have no/little control over safer sex negotiation and find themselves dependent on their client’s willingness to practice safer sex.

In Canada,
sex trade workers
are made more vulnerable to HIV infection because of marginalization and laws that make accessing HIV prevention, health services and legal protection more difficult.
Sex Trade Workers' Determinants of Health
(AIDS, n.d.)
(AIDS, n.d.)
THe importance of....
accesibility to hiv/aids centres
Nurses' GOAL
Multiple sex partners
Sharing needles
Inconsistant condom use
Risky sexual behavior (such as anal sex)
Incorrect use of condoms
Lack of regular check-ups for STIs
HIV risk factors also include:
Part 1
Thus, "earlier detection means patients can avoid passing virus to others" (Morton, 2013)
By recognizing HIV at its most infectious stage - usually at 2 weeks - can
the spread of HIV virus
Part 2 - Reason behind our topics
End of presentation to target audience
Thank you
Full transcript