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Comma Sense

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eva mcgough

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Comma Sense

Comma Sense Rule #2:
Using commas between independent clauses
Comma Sense Rule #1:
Using commas between items in a series
COMMA SENSE:
Comma rules to learn, love, and live by!

For grammar nerds and eighth graders at Lake Washington Girls Middle School
Comma Sense Rule #3:
Using commas to set off parenthetical elements

Comma Sense Rule #4:
Using commas in direct address
Use commas to set off the name
or title of a person addressed directly.
Comma Sense Rule #5:
Using commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses

Use a comma to set off introductory words, phrases, and clauses from the main part of a sentence. A comma keeps the reader from accidentally attaching the introductory portion to the main part of the sentence, then having to go back and reread the sentence.
Comma Sense Rule #6:
Using commas to set off direct quotations

Use commas to set off direct quotations (the exact words of a speaker) within a sentence.
Comma Sense Rule #7:
Using commas to separate adjectives of equal importance (coordinate adjectives)

Use a comma between equally important adjectives. An adjective is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun. Adjectives answer the questions Which one? What kind? And How many?
Comma Sense Rule #8:
Using commas to separate contrasted elements

Comma Sense Rule #9:
Using commas

Comma Sense Rule #9:
Using commas in geographical names, dates, addresses, and titles

Use commas to separate individual words, phrases, or clauses in a series. (A series contains at least three items.) USE A COMMA BEFORE THE CONJUNCTION AND THE LAST ITEM IN THE SERIES. This comma is called the “serial comma.”
Use a comma between two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). This is what is called a compound sentence.
Use a comma to separate parenthetical elements, such as an explanatory word or phrase, within a sentence. These words or phrases interrupt the flow of thought and are not necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
Examples:

They packed sandwiches, grapes, and cookies in the picnic basket.
(Three nouns in a series)

I took her for walks, read her stories, and made up games for her to play.
(Three phrases in a series)
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.

Margaret organized the event invited the guests and chose the music.
Examples:
My friend wanted me to attend the dance,
but
that was the last thing I wanted to do.

She begged me every day for a week,
so
I finally agreed to go with her.
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.

The dance wasn't as horrible as I expected and I surprised everyone by actually enjoying myself.

http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/nova/nova1.htm
What is the difference between essential and nonessential elements?

The difference between essential elements and nonessential elements is tricky. If the sentence would NOT make sense without the element or would change its meaning, then it is
essential
and does NOT require commas. If the sentence makes sense without the element, then it is
nonessential
and requires commas.
For example:
Desserts that contain chocolate please Helen.
(essential element)
Chocolate desserts
, which are her favorites,
please Helen.
(nonessential element)

As a general rule, use
that
to introduce
essential
elements; use
which
to introduce
nonessential
elements.
Examples:
Children
who are born on February 29
start school before they are two.
(essential = no commas; NOT extra info)

There's little chance,
in my opinion
, that war will occur.
(nonessential = commas needed, EXTRA info)
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.


~My brother who lives in Arizona is named Pat.


~My other brother who lives in Texas is named Sam.
Are you starving Jane?

Let's eat Grandpa!
Examples:

INTRODUCTORY WORDS
Relieved,
I gathered my things and left for the day.
No,
it hasn’t started snowing yet.
Surprised,
I backed into a table.

PHRASES
Hoping for the best,
we checked our findings.
(participle phrase)
Pleased with her report card,
Marcy smiled broadly.
(participle phrase)
In the middle of the night,
that noise scared the youngsters.
(two prepositional phrases)
CLAUSES
(Remember your subordinating conjunctions: AAAWWUBBIS = after, although, as, when, while, until, because, before, if, since)
When he called me,
I was in the middle of eating dinner.
Since we arrived late,
we couldn’t join the performance.
Although she admired her mother,
she did not want to be just like her.
EXAMPLES:
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
Because I couldn't find my house key I had to climb in my bedroom window.

As a language arts teacher I am very careful to write grammatically correct emails.
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
Not all adjectives, however, are equally important.
Use the tests below to determine whether adjectives should be separated by a comma. If they are equally important, a comma is required.

Test #1:
Change the order of the adjectives. If the sentence reads just as clearly, separate the adjectives with a comma. If the sentence becomes unclear or sounds awkward, do not use a comma.

Test #2:
Place the word
and
between the adjectives. If the sentence still reads well, use commas between the adjectives. If the sentence sounds unclear or awkward, do not use commas.
Use a comma to set off a phrase that expresses contrast.
•Some say the world will end in ice
, not fire.

•Your misspellings are due to carelessness
, not ignorance.

•The contestants were nervous
, yet hopeful.

•The puppies were cute
, but very messy
.
(Some writers will leave out the comma that sets off a contrasting phrase beginning with
but
.)
EXAMPLES:
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
Study these rules, and you'll be a grammar nerd for sure, dude!
Just use your...
EXAMPLES:
Isn't the rainbow beautiful
, Grace
?

If I were you
, Maite,
I'd save my admiration for the double rainbow.
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
Are you starving Jane?
Let's eat Grandpa!
EXAMPLES:
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
EXAMPLES:
TRY IT!
Place the commas where they belong in the sentence below.
COMMA SENSE!
Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.

•Katherine liked
the friendly, talkative
boy sitting next to her in class.

•The reporter met with
several talented, intense high school
athletes.
For breakfast we ate two oversized blueberry muffins.
Did you read about his happy short life?
My father always said, "Be careful what you wish for."
(If the quote comes after the speech tag, place the comma after the speech tag and before the opening quotation mark.)

“Please remember to bring your notebook to class,” she reminded the class.
(If the quote comes before the speech tag and tells something, place a comma after the quote and before the closing quotation mark.)

"I don't care," she said, "what you think about it."
(This is a split quotation. There is quoted speech on each side of the speech tag. Because the quoted speech is one sentence, the second part of the quotation is not capitalized.)
Ms. Eva reminded the class "Don't forget to study for your comma test."

"We are prepared" the girls assured her.

"Of course" Ms. Eva continued "I have confidence in every one of you."
Birmingham, Alabama,
gets its name from
Birmingham, England
.

(Pay attention to that second comma.)
July 22, 1959,
was a momentous day in his life.
Who lives at
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC
?
Rachel B. Lake, MD,
will be the principal speaker.
I will fight tomorrow not today.

I am nervous yet ready.
She lived in Seattle Washington for her entire life.

February 7 1993 was the second anniversary of their first date.
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