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Pre IB Music History

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penny clements

on 25 May 2015

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Transcript of Pre IB Music History

Fra Angelico

Born 1395
- 18th February, 1455

Notable works
• Annunciation of Cortona (1437-46)
• Fiesole Altarpiece(1424-1501)
Artist Fra Angelico and Lorenzo di Credi
• San Marco Altarpiece (1438-1443)
Charles Ives completed his Fourth Symphony. It is classed as a comedy symphony.
Pre IB Music History
Baroque
Period

Classical
Period

Romantic
Period

Renaissance
Period

20th Century
Period

1901
In Munich, Gustav Mahler's Fourth Symphony debuts.
1925
In Tennessee, the Grand Ole Opry was founded. One of the first country music arenas.
1911
In Dreseden, Richard Strauss' Der Rosenkavalier premiered. It was one of the first comic operas to be performed. This was the start of the comedy era in music.
1914
The Irish composer Victor Herbert helped to establish the American Society of Composers, Arrangers, and Producers (ASCAP).

World War One broke out on June the 28th.
1916
1904
In Riga, the Latvian National Opera was founded.
World War I ended on the eleventh of November at eleven in the morning.
1918
The London Symphony Orchestra was founded.
1919
Chicago was jazz capital and Arnold Schoenberg introduced the concept of serialism; a composition where a melodic line is repeated.
1958
1956
1951 - String Quartet #1 by Elliot Carter was first performed and NBC hires Gian Carlo Menotti to write Amahl and the Night Visitors, the first opera for television.
The Sydney Opera House
was built in Sydney in Australia.
This is quite a significant
moment for Australia as prior to this building, there was no official place to perform classical music and opera.
Caravaggio
The Conversion of St Paul
Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
1601
strong perspective effects
dramatic color
dramatic light and dark (chiaroscuro and tenebrism)
movement of figures (especially upwards)
Artemisia Gentileschi
Judith and Maidservant
Institute of the Arts, Detroit
1625
dramatic light and dark (chiaroscuro and tenebrism)
2. Image
El Greco
Portrait of Fray Hortensio Felix Paravicino
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
1609
spanish baroque
lots of shaddows
3. Image
Peter Paul Rubens
The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
1617
nacked characters
lots of strong emotions
4 Image
CaravaggioCalling of Saint Matthew San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome1600
broken and agitated draperies
loose brushstrokes
heavy impasto
dense and detailed compositions (for emotional impact on viewer)
5. Image
Elector's Palace in Trier, Germany
deliberately incomplete architectural elements
1. Building
Santa Susanna in Rome, Italy (left)
Saints Peter and Paul Church in Krakow 1597-1619, Poland (right)
2+3 building
Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, Russia (left)
Grassalkovich Palace, Gödöllő, Hungary designed by Andreas Mayerhoffer (right)
4. and 5. building
► Death of Elizabeth I - 1603 (left)

The Thirty Years War - 1618 to 1648

Discovery of New York - 1626

Arrival of the Pilgrims - 1620

Death of Galileo Galilei - 1642
famous events
Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi is famous for writing Romantic operas .
1830's Romantic Period Bonnet
This Bonnet is wide brimmed and the crown has extra space to fit the top knot hairstyle of the decade.
Mothers in the Romantic Period
The Romantic mother's "naturally" sympathetic nature made her particularly fitted for the job of rearing children.
Romantic period stays, petticoat, and sleeve supporters in 1830s.
Women's Clothing
The Romantic Period Art
Romantic ideas mainly included inspiration of art, nature, and metaphors of organic growth. Romantic era was not only used for writing it was also expressed in music, operas, and art..
He was a Romantic-era Polish composer. He began playing the piano at age four, and by age eight, was considered to be a child prodigy. He composed over 200 piano pieces and he turned the piano into a more emotional tool.
Frédéric Chopin (1810-1901)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Franz Schubert was a very musically talented child. Franz Peter Schubert was an Austrian composer. He composed over six hundred songs; in 1815 alone, he wrote one hundred and forty-four songs.
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847)
Was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelhssohn's music is marked by a delicacy, sparkle, seamless flow, and clarity.
Brahms, Johannes (1833-1897)
He began his musical career by playing the piano. He often achieved a balance between the Romantic exaggeration and experimentation of the era with the structural clarity of the Classical era.
Verdi, Guiseppi (1813-1901)
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. He is one of the greatest masters of opera.
The Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England. Designed by John Nash. Construction first began in 1787 and finally completed in 1823. Initially made for Prince Regent and later for George IV.
The Royal Pavilion
Fonthill Abbey
Here is a black and white image of Fonthill Abbey, as you can see it is a very grand and unique castle or church like building surrounded by trees and forestry.
United States Capitol
The U.S. Capitol building receives a new dome in 1855.

Eifel Tower
Built in 1889, The Eifel Tower is a global icon of France.

Woolworth Building
The Woolworth Building was constructed in the neo-Gothic style and was designed by Cass Gilbert.

1980
On December eigth, John Lennon was shot dead by Mark Champion outside of John Lennon's artment in NewYork.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
He lived from 17th January 1756 until 5th Decemeber 1791 in Salzburg, Austria. He was one of 7 children, 5 of them died. Being able toplay the keyboard, he starts to compose songs at the age of five. He was a master of music, since he was young. Even if his music was fantastic, his financial situations were really critical. He didn't only compose songs, he even composed operas like The Marriage of Figaro or Don Giovanni. Mozart always had problems with hs father bcausethe father was often against his dcisions, like the marriage to Constanze. Mozarts cause of death isn'tclear, even now. It can only be shown that he was burried in a grave for common people mixed together, because of his financial problems.
Subjectivity
Music could not convey pictures or ideas, some composers resorted to "objective" devices which imitated natural sounds. Much of the music during the nineteenth century has a sentimental quality.

Composers were greatly influenced by the intense nationalistic feelings that developed after the Napoleonic wars. The main areas of nationalistic music during the nineteenth century were Germany, Italy, France, Central Europe and Russia.
Nationalism
Programmatic Compositions
Ludwig van Beethoven
The development and use of descriptive music became an important part of the Romantic movement. The trend from the subjectivity of the composer to the emotionalism in the listener was natural. It has included descriptive titles, melodic formulas, harmonic cliches and instrumental effects.
Beethoven was baptised on 17th December 1770 and died on 26th March 187. He is one of the most famous composers in the world. In his early ae, his father taught him music. At the age of 22, he got friends with Haydn and Mozart, who later ruled the music in the Classical Period with Beethoven. In 1792, Beethoven moved to Vienne, where he also spentthe rest of his life. At the age of 26, he started to loose his hearing. It all started with a sound like a bell, caused by a tinnitus. The ringing made it heard to listen to music. Afteloosing his earing, most of the songs he comosed contain many deep notes, because he could feel the vibration of te eep tones more. But it didn't stop him from composing music. He tried many hearing aids like thous hearing horn.
The Enlightenment
Ideas such as philosophy, science, medicine, and politics radically changed.
Scientific Revolution.
Transition from Middle Ages to Modern Era.
Educated and more literated population.

The Industrial Revolution
From 1789 to 1799
American Revolution
From 1775 to 1783
George Washington elected first President of the United States of America
The harmonic system established by Rameau in 1722 began breaking down during the Classical period. The Romantic composers exploited the use of altered chords and modulation to such a degree that the feeling for a central tonality often became obscure.
Chromaticism
Franz Schubert
Franz Peter Schubert was born in Austria on 31st January 1797 and died on 19th November 1828. He was one of his parents 15 kids, but 9 died of infanty. Only 5 survived. At the age of seven he had his very first Piano lesson, but it consisted more with talking and discussing about pieces. He also played the viola and was the first viola in his family's quartette. His life only lasting less then 32 years, Schubert composed 600 Lieder, and nearly ten completed symphonies. Some of them were left as the uncompleted symphonies. Like Mozart, Scuberts causeof death isn't really clear. Some people said that he died of typhoid fever but other say that he died of syphilis. One of his last wishes was, that he wanted to be burried next to Beethoven. The two are still burried together in the Zentralfriedhof of Vienna.
Lasted from 1760 to 1830
Instrumentation
During the Romantic period, the piano (pianoforte) became the most popular single instrument. It became a musical symbol of Romanticism, and was enlarged to give it a wider range and more tonal power. The piano reached such heights of popularity that it became the favorite household instrument with every family that could afford it.
Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn was bon on 31 March 1732 – 31 May 1809. Lik Mozrt ad Schubert, he is an Austrian composer. He is even called the 'Father of Symphony'. When he was six years old, his parents noticed that aydn has a muician gift and sent him 7.5 miled away from home to his relative, because he was a schoolmaster and the head of the choir in a school. He took care of Joseph. Joseph remembers that life at his relatives wasn't easy, he was frequently hungry. After many trips to London hee back to Vienna in 1795. Shortly after an attack of Napoleon on Vienna in 1809, Haydn died at the age of 77.
The French Revolution
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach was the fifth and survivng child of Johann Sebastian Bach. He lived from 8 March 1714 until 14 December 1788. He was one of Bachs children and Bach senior always wanted his children to become famous. his is how Carl Pilipp Emanel and his siblings were taught music by their father. After obtaining his degree in law he turned his attention to music. Composers like mozart said of him "He is the father, we are the children." Composers like Beethoven admired him, too.
On August seventeenth, Elevis Presley died in his Graceland home in Memphis, America. His home is now a HIstoric Nationaal landmark and has over 600,000 visitors a year! Just behind the White House.
1977
Antoine Vestier, 1785

Portrait of a Lady with a Book, Next to a River Source
New american presiden
Francoise Boucher

Madame de Pompadour
5 important buildings

The Viennese School
The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in late-18th-century Vienna: W. A. Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. Franz Schubert is occasionally added to the list.
Classicist door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic.
An example of Classicist architecture
Estrela Basilica
Is a basilica in Lisbon, Portugal, built by order of Queen Maria I of Portugal

Construction started in 1779 and the basilica was finished in 1790.
St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church, Liverpool
Church of San Agustín, Lima
The Basilica and Convent of San Agustín is located in the historic centre of Lima.
It was built in 1573
1989
Fall of theBerlin wall announced freedom and liberty for the citizens on Eastern Europe. People crambled over the war to reunite with loveones and celebrated their new found freedom.


Antoine Vestier, 1785

Portrait of a Lady with a Book, Next to a River Source
Michel Garnier, Le départ de Monsieur de Saint-Marc pour la bataille de Fontenoy
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Portrait of Marie-Antoinette
The Versailles of Maria Leszczyńska
St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church is a church in Seel Street, Liverpool, England now transformed into a restaurant and bar called Alma de Cuba.

St. Peter's was built in 1788 by Rev A.B. MacDonald of the Order of St Benedict (O.S.B.).

Levietkii, Portrait of E.I.Nelidova
Thomas Tallis (1510-1585)
Josquin Des Prez (1440-1521)
Pierre de La Rue (1460-1518)
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
William Byrd (1543-1623)
English composer, flourished as a church musician, and is considered one of the church's best early composers. Although Tallis composed many styles of music, the majority of it is arranged for choir as Latin motets and English anthems.
Europe's most sought after musician during his lifetime. His popularity was a result of combining many contemporary styles of music, his originality, and his ability to unveil the meaning and emotions of a text through music. Much of Josquin's music survives today, with his masses and chansons being the most popular.
La Rue's repertoire consists entirely of vocal music. His most popular work, the Requiem, and one of the earliest surviving Requiem masses, emphasizes the lower voices. As well as low voicing, various rhythmic patterns and long, flowing melodies are main characteristics of La Rue's music.
Linking the Renaissance to the Baroque, His revolutionary music included the first dramatic opera, Orfeo. Much of Monteverdi's early years were spent composing madrigals; nine books in total. These books clearly mark the change in thinking and compositional style between the two periods. Book 8, Ottavo Libro, includes what many consider to be the perfected form of the madrigal,
It is said that he is perhaps the greatest English composer of all time. With hundreds of individual compositions, Byrd seemingly mastered every style of music that existed during his lifetime, outshining Orlando de Lassus and Giovanni Palestrina. Apart from his choral works, Byrd is considered by many to be the first "genius" of the keyboard.
Josquin Des Prez "Faulte d'argent"
Beatus Vir "Monteverdi"
Thomas Tallis
"Mass for four voices"
William Byrd
"Mass for four voices"
Carlo Gesualdo
"Peccantem me quotidie
"
Images

Sandro Botticelli

Born 1445
Died on 17th May, 1510


Notable works
• Primavera(1482)
• The Birth of Venus(1486)
• The Resurrected Christ(1480)
Piero della Francesca

Born 1415
Died on 12th October, 1492

Notable works
• The Baptism of Christ(1444-1470)
• Brera Madonna(1472)
• Flagellation of Christ (1455–1460)
Michelangelo

Born March 1475
Died on 18th February 1564

Notable works
• The Last Judgment (1537-1541)
• The Creation of Adam (1512)
• The Crucifixion of St. Peter (1546-1550)
George Frideric Handel
(1685–1759)
German-British baroque composer, famous for his operas, oratorios, anthems and organ concertos.
Antonio Vivaldi
1678 – 1741
nicknamed il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer, Catholic priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice.
Arcangelo Corelli
1653 – 1713
Italian violinist and composer of the Baroque era
Leonardo da Vinci

Born on 15th April, 1452
Died on 2nd May, 1519


Notable works
• Mona Lisa
• The Last Supper
• Lady with anErmine
Corelli used only a limited portion of his instrument's capabilities.
Georg Philipp Telemann
1681 – 1767
German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Almost completely self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes.
Henry Purcell
1659 - 1695
English composer. Although incorporating Italian and French stylistic elements into his compositions, Purcell's legacy was a uniquely English form of Baroque music.
1400
1450
1550
1350
Renaissance Begins
• Brunelleschi creates linear perspective 1420
• Sandro Botticelli paints Birth of Venus(1486)
• Raphael paints The School of Athens(1511)
• St. Peter's Basilica(1546-1589) Designed principally by Michelangelo located within Vatican City
• Santa Maria delle Grazie(1466-1499) Designed principally by Francesco Sforza located within Milan, northern Italy
• Laurentian Library(1524-1559) Designed principally by Michelangelo located within Florence, Italy
• Doge’s Palace, Venice(1465-1479) Designed principally by Luciano Laurana located within Venice, northern Italy.
• Santa Maria della concezione (1508-1524) Designed principally by located within Rome, Italy
• Da Vinci paints the Last Supper(1595)
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