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5th Class, Poe

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Prudent Duckling

on 29 October 2018

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Transcript of 5th Class, Poe

EDGAR ALLAN POE
(1809-1849)

the
“inner world”
of dream, hallucination, and imagination

human reality:
hidden and irrational

Poe
not
the heir

1827:
enlisted in the US Army

Tamerlane and Other Poems
, not successful

1829:
Al Araaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems,
a highly favorable notice
1831: Baltimore

aunt Maria Clemm and her seven-year-old daughter,
Virginia

1836: Poe
married Virginia (13)
1831:
Poems by Edgar Allan Poe


1833: a $50 prize for
"MS. Found in a Bottle"
1836, Richmond:
excessive drinking, losing jobs, state of panic

1838, New York:

The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket

Philadelphia:
coeditor of
Burton's Gentleman's Magazine
("The Fall of the House of Usher")
1843: a $100 prize for
"The Gold Bug"

early form of detective fiction:
cryptograms and secret writing
1847: Victoria died
of consumption

Poe
lost all his fortunes

found

delirious
on the streets of Baltimore
madness

strong drink
opium

The death of a young bride

I grew, day by day, more moody, more irritable, more regardless of the feelings of others. I suffered myself to use intemperate language to my wife. At length, I even offered her personal violence. My pets, of course, were made to feel the change in my disposition. I not only neglected, but ill-used them. For Pluto, however, I still retained sufficient regard to restrain me from maltreating him, as I made no scruple of maltreating the rabbits, the monkey, or even the dog, when by accident, or through affection, they came in my way. But my disease grew upon me - for what disease is like alcohol? - and at length even Pluto, who was now becoming old, and consequently somewhat peevish - even Pluto began to experience the effects of my ill-temper.
an
unmarked grave
in a Baltimore cemetery
three people
at the funeral
1875: Poe's body
(?)
moved to
a different site in the same cemetery

“A LAST JEST THAT WOULD HAVE APPEALED TO HIS LOVE OF THE BIZARRE AND MACABRE”
"All black cats are witches in disguise"
"There is something in the unselfish and self-sacrificing love of a brute, which goes directly to the heart of him who has had frequent occasion to test the paltry friendship and gossamer fidelity of mere Man."
Pluto:

"a remarkably large and beautiful animal, entirely black, and sagacious to an astonishing degree"

What happens to Pluto?
"One morning, in cool blood, I slipped a noose about its neck and hung it to the limb of a tree - hung it with the tears streaming from my eyes, and with the bitterest remorse at my heart - hung it because I knew that it had loved me, and because I felt it had given me no reason of offence - hung it because I knew that in so doing I was committing a sin - a deadly sin..."
house ruined in a fire

The wall:

a gigantic cat, with a rope about its neck

The resurrection of the cat?
an enemy, the instigator of the narrator’s own deeds

Freud's "projection"

"Pluto"?

black cats -- bad omens
"...its evident fondness for myself rather disgusted and annoyed me. By slow degrees, these feelings of disgust and annoyance rose into the bitterness of hatred. I avoided the creature; a certain sense of shame, and the remembrance of my former deed of cruelty, preventing me from physically abusing it. I did not, for some weeks, strike, or otherwise violently ill- use it; but gradually - very gradually - I came to look upon it with unutterable loathing, and to flee silently from its odious presence, as from the breath of a pestilence."
"What added, no doubt, to my hatred of the beast, was the discovery, on the morning after I brought it home, that, like Pluto, it also had been deprived of one of its eyes ... My wife had called my attention, more than once, to the character of the mark of white hair, of which I have spoken, and which constituted the sole visible difference between the strange beast and the one I had destroyed. The reader will remember that this mark, although large, had been originally very indefinite; but, by slow degrees - degrees nearly imperceptible, and which for a long time my reason struggled to reject as fanciful - it had, at length, resumed a rigorous distinctness of outline.
What happens next?
Why and how is the narrator arrested?
The corpse, already greatly decayed and clotted with gore, stood erect before the eyes of the spectators. Upon its head, with red extended mouth and solitary eye of fire, sat the hideous beast whose craft had seduced me into murder, and whose informing voice had consigned me to the hangman. I had walled the monster up within the tomb!
Charles Baudelaire:

the crux of "The Black Cat":

a mysterious force which makes man commit inexplicable actions
"The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839)
Epigraph:
Son cœur est un luth suspendu;
Sitôt qu’on le touche il résonne.

De Béranger,
Le Refus (The Refusal)
My heart’s like a lyre newly strung,
One touch, and you make it resound!
DURING the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country, and at length found myself, as the shades of the evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher.
I reined my horse to the precipitous brink of
a black and lurid tarn
that lay in unruffled lustre by the dwelling, and gazed down—but with a shudder even more thrilling than before—upon the remodelled and inverted images of the gray sedge, and the ghastly tree-stems, and the vacant and eye-like windows.
The narrator
Roderick Usher
Madeline Usher
a direct line of descent?
What do Roderick and Madeline suffer from?
"He suffered much from a morbid acuteness of the senses; the most insipid food was alone endurable; he could wear only garments of certain texture; the odors of all flowers were oppressive; his eyes were tortured by even a faint light; and
there were but
peculiar sounds, and these from stringed instruments, which did not inspire him with horror."
A cadaverousness of complexion; an eye large, liquid, and luminous beyond comparison; lips somewhat thin and very pallid, but of a surpassingly beautiful curve; a nose of a delicate Hebrew model, but with a breadth of nostril unusual in similar formations; a finely moulded chin, speaking, in its want of prominence, of a want of moral energy; hair of a more than web-like softness and tenuity;—these features, with an inordinate expansion above the regions of the temple, made up altogether a countenance not easily to be forgotten.
Roderick's ART?
THE HAUNTED PALACE
The house = a living, sentient being
The radiance was that of the full, setting, and blood-red moon which now shone vividly through that once barely-discernible fissure of which I have before spoken as extending from the roof of the building, in a zigzag direction, to the base. While I gazed, this fissure rapidly widened ... my brain reeled as I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder—there was a long tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousand waters—and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the “House of Usher.”
Pluto and Madeline

the "Other"

Madeline's femininity and Roderick


Usher's sister = Usher himself
projecting his
feminine element

out of himself
as his
"twin sister"

Roderick's madness = self-inflicted
death = a beautiful and transcendent experience

the death of a beautiful woman is the most poetic subject for literature
Poe's influence on French symbolism
1850’s--1870’s:

early Symbolist aesthetic
movement in
France

Walt Whitman, Edgar Allan Poe, Charles Baudelaire, and Arthur Rimbaud

Three main factors:


1. the artist’s external world
2. the artist’s internal world
3. the “magic” which bonds the two
Five common features in Symbolist poetry:

associating various effects
symbols
exotic locations
human passivity
mixing effects to invoke
synesthesia
Poe:
the importance of
EFFECT

“When, indeed, men speak of Beauty, they mean, precisely, not a quality, as is supposed, but an effect..."


("The Philosophy of Composition", 1846)
“The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar”
(1845)

the science of death VS human mortality

Valdemar's life is prolonged through mesmerism (hypnotism)

the effects
of mesmerism on a dying person
"dead" for 7 months


awakened so that he can in fact die:

“…his whole frame at once–within the space of a single minute, or even less, shrunk–crumbled, absolutely rotted away beneath my hands. Upon the bed, before that whole company, there lay
a nearly liquid mass of loathsome–-of detestable putridity
”.
Baudelaire:
“Une Charogne” ("A Carrion")
coming across a decaying corpse on the side of the road:

“The flies were buzzing on this
putrid
stomach.

From where were leaving black battalions

Of larva, which ran like
a thick liquid

The length of these living rags.”
1852, Baudelaire
translated
a selection of the tales of Poe:

“It’s essential, that is to say I desire, that Edgar Poe, who isn’t popular in America, become a great man for France.”
“A Dream Within A Dream”


Take this kiss upon the brow!
And, in parting from you now,
Thus much let me avow --
You are not wrong, who deem
That my days have been a dream;
Yet if hope has flown away
In a night, or in a day,
In a vision, or in none,
Is it therefore the less gone?
All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream.

I stand amid the roar
Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of the golden sand --
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep,
While I weep -- while I weep!
O God! can I not grasp
Them with a tighter clasp?
O God! can I not save
One from the pitiless wave?
Is all that we see or seem
But a dream within a dream?

It was now the representation of an object that I shudder to name - and for this, above all, I loathed, and dreaded, and would have rid myself of the monster had I dared - it was now, I say, the image of a hideous - of a ghastly thing - of the GALLOWS! - oh, mournful and terrible engine of horror and of crime - of agony and death!
The Murders in the Rue Morgue (1841)
The first modern detective story!!!

C. Auguste Dupin
"The Mystery of Marie Rogêt"
and
"The Purloined Letter"

"detective"
The exhumed body:

178 cm tall, buried in a military uniform;

Poe -- 173 cm tall, buried in civilian clothing!
“There is no reason why a great poet should be a wise and good man, or even a tolerable human being, but there is every reason why his reader should be improved in his humanity as a result of reading him.”
N. Frye

Critic and editor
the central figure of
American Romanticism
(French)
Symbolism

the
detective genre
fiction
the emerging
science fiction genre

poetry and short mystery tales
mastery of the macabre
“All that we see or seem is but a dream within a dream.”
John and Frances
Allan
-- adoptive family
education, England
adolescence:
gambling
A Dream Within a Dream, Dream-Land, The Sleeper, A Dream, Dreams...
Oh! that my young life were a lasting dream!

-- Dreams
The crew pace the deck with unquiet and tremulous step; but there is upon their countenances an expression more of the eagerness of hope than of the apathy of despair.

In the meantime the wind is still in our poop, and, as we carry a crowd of canvass, the ship is at times lifted bodily from out the sea! Oh, horror upon horror!—the ice opens suddenly to the right, and to the left, and we are whirling dizzily, in immense concentric circles, round and round the borders of a gigantic amphitheatre, the summit of whose walls is lost in the darkness and the distance. But little time will be left me to ponder upon my destiny! The circles rapidly grow small—we are plunging madly within the grasp of the whirlpool—and amid a roaring, and bellowing, and thundering of ocean and of tempest, the ship is quivering—oh God! and ——going down!
Graham's Magazine (1840-42)

“It was becoming clear that two years was about as long as Poe could hold a job, and his stay at Graham’s confirmed this principle. Though he contributed skillfully wrought fiction and unquestionably developed as a critic, his endless literary feuding, his alcoholism, and his inability to get along very well with people caused him to leave after 1842”.
Here Legrand submitted the parchment to my inspection. The following characters were rudely traced between the death’s-head and the goat:

5 3 ‡ ‡ † 3 0 5 ) ) 6 * ; 4 8 2 6 ) 4 ‡ . ) 4 ‡ ) ; 8 0 6 * ; 4 8 † 8 ¶ 6 0 ) ) 8 5 ; 1 ‡ ( ; : ‡ * 8 † 8 3 ( 8 8 ) 5 * † ; 4 6 ( ; 8 8 * 9 6 * ? ; 8 ) * ‡ ( ; 4 8 5 ) ; 5 * † 2 : * ‡ ( ; 4 9 5 6 * 2 ( 5 * — 4 ) 8 ¶ 8 * ; 4 0 6 9 2 8 5 ) ; ) 6 † 8 ) 4 ‡ ‡ ; 1 ( ‡ 9 ; 4 8 0 8 1 ; 8 : 8 ‡ 1 ; 4 8 † 8 5 ; 4 ) 4 8 5 † 5 2 8 8 0 6 * 8 1 ( ‡ 9 ; 4 8 ; 8 8 ; 4 ( ‡ ? 3 4 ; 4 8 ) 4 ‡ ; 1 6 1 ; : 1 8 8 ;‡ ? ;
“It is now time that we arrange our key, as far as discovered, in a tabular form, to avoid confusion. It will stand thus:

5  represents  a
† " d
8 " e
3 " g
4 " h
6 " i
* " n
‡ " o
( " r
; " t
It now only remains to give you the full translation of the characters upon the parchment, as unriddled. Here it is:

‘A good glass in the bishop’s hostel in the devil’s seat forty-one degrees and thirteen minutes northeast and by north main branch seventh limb east side shoot from the left eye of the death’s-head a bee line from the tree through the shot fifty feet out.’ ”
“Ratiocination”:

intellect and creative imagination
identify with the mind of the criminal
Guess the solution to the mystery?
“WHEN YOU HAVE ELIMINATED THE IMPOSSIBLE, WHATEVER REMAINS, HOWEVER IMPROBABLE, MUST BE THE TRUTH”.
1845: "The Raven"
Poe's fame rests on only several pieces
MS. in a Bottle
The Murders in the Rue Morgue
The Purloined Letter
The Gold Bug
The Black Cat
The Fall of the House of Usher
The Masque of the Red Death
The Pit and the Pendulum
The Purloined Letter
The significance of the letter:
a POSTMODERN DEBATE

Jacques Lacan's structuralism VS Jacques Derrida's deconstruction
The Masque of the Red Death
plague
a masquerade ball --
Prince Prospero

seven rooms of different color

a "Red Death victim" figure
-- hollow
everybody dies

ALLEGORY: death is inevitable
The Pit and the Pendulum
a prisoner
tormented
during the Spanish Inquisition

realistic
, NOT supernatural: the
SOUNDS
I had swooned; but still will not say that all of consciousness was lost. What of it there remained I will not attempt to define, or even to describe; yet all was not lost. In the deepest slumber—no! In delirium—no! In a swoon—no! In death—no! even in the grave all is not lost. Else there is no immortality for man. Arousing from the most profound of slumbers, we break the gossamer web of some dream. Yet in a second afterward, (so frail may that web have been) we remember not that we have dreamed.
“But tomorrow I die, and today I would unburden my soul”

confessional, honest

“Mother died today. Or maybe yesterday; I can't be sure.”
“It was a black cat - a very large one - fully as large as Pluto, and closely resembling him in every respect but one. Pluto had not a white hair upon any portion of his body; but this cat had a large, although indefinite, splotch of white, covering nearly the whole region of the breast. Upon my touching him, he immediately arose, purred loudly, rubbed against my hand, and appeared delighted with my notice.”
What is the narrator's relationship with the new cat?
And now in the mere exaggeration of the prevailing character of these features, and of the expression they were wont to convey, lay so much of change that I doubted to whom I spoke. The now ghastly pallor of the skin, and the now miraculous lustre of the eye, above all things startled and even awed me. The silken hair, too, had been suffered to grow all unheeded, and as, in its wild gossamer texture, it floated rather than fell about the face, I could not, even with effort, connect its Arabesque expression with any idea of simple humanity.
the grim phantasm, FEAR
Madeline's death
Having deposited our mournful burden upon tressels within this region of horror, we partially turned aside the yet unscrewed lid of the coffin, and looked upon the face of the tenant. A striking similitude between the brother and sister now first arrested my attention; and Usher, divining, perhaps, my thoughts, murmured out some few words from which I learned that the deceased and himself had been twins, and that sympathies of a scarcely intelligible nature had always existed between them. Our glances, however, rested not long upon the dead — for we could not regard her unawed. The disease which had thus entombed the lady in the maturity of youth, had left, as usual in all maladies of a strictly cataleptical character, the mockery of a faint blush upon the bosom and the face, and that suspiciously lingering smile upon the lip which is so terrible in death.
Mad Trist
Ethelred
the hermit
the dragon
the shield

SOUNDS
How does the story end?
Poe's Poetry

All Beauty sleeps!—and lo! where lies
Irene, with her Destinies!

The lady sleeps! Oh, may her sleep,
Which is enduring, so be deep!
Heaven have her in its sacred keep!
This chamber changed for one more holy,
This bed for one more melancholy,
I pray to God that she may lie
Forever with unopened eye,
While the pale sheeted ghosts go by!

My love, she sleeps! Oh, may her sleep,
As it is lasting, so be deep!
Soft may the worms about her creep!

"The Sleeper"
sex and death
the bed = the bier

“To One in Paradise, “Sonnet to Zante,” “Lenore,” “Ulalume,” “Annabel Lee”, “The Raven”,
etc.
Annabel Lee
I was a child and she was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea,
But we loved with a love that was more than love—
I and my Annabel Lee—

But our love it was stronger by far than the love
Of those who were older than we—
Of many far wiser than we—
And neither the angels in Heaven above
Nor the demons down under the sea
Can ever dissever my soul from the soul
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling-my darling-my life and my bride,
In the sepulchre there by the sea
In her tomb by the sounding sea.

And neither the angels in heaven above,
Nor the demons down under the sea,
Can ever dissever my soul from the soul
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;

For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise, but I feel the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling—my darling—my life and my bride,
In her sepulchre there by the sea—
In her tomb by the sounding sea.
Poe’s last complete poem

children love VS adult love

Romantic influence

reunion after death?
U CARSTVU JEDNOM PRE MNOGO LETA
TAMO GDE MORE SNE SVOJE SNI
ŽIVLJAŠE DEVA ZANOSOM CVETA,
IME JOJ BEŠE ANABEL LI

JEDNA JOJ MISAO U MISLI BDI:
LJUBAVI NAŠE SVEŠĆU DA ZRI.
BILA JE DETE, JA DETE, DAVNO,
TAMO GDE MORE SNE SVOJE SNI,

AL VOLJASMO SE MI NADLJUBAVNO,
JA I PREMILA ANABEL LI.
ANĐELI S NEBA ŽUDJAHU STRAVNO
DA TAKVA LJUBAV U NJIMA VRI.
I ETO RAZLOG,ZNATE GA SVI,
I KOB OCAJNA,OSVETA GLUPA:
PODUNU VETAR S OBLAKA ZLI,
TAMO GDE MORE SNE SVOJE SNI,
POKOSI MOJU ANABEL LI.

VITEZA NJENIH POVORKA STUPA;
U GROB JE DALEK OD MENE SKRI
GDE MORE ŽALO ROMONOM KUPA
AL LJUBAV NAŠA NADLJUBAVNA BI,

TA LJUBAV NASTAJNA JE JAVNA,
NIKAD SE SLICNA NE DESI, ZBI
O, NI ANDJELI SA NEBA SLAVNA
DEMONI MRACNI DUBINA ZLI
NE RASTAVIŠE, GDE MORE SNI,
MENE OD MOJE ANABEL LI.
MESEC KAD SINE-DUŠU MI VINE
PREBAJNOJ, VAZDA, ANABEL LI.
ZVEZDE KAD ZRACE-OCI MI ZNACE
VAZDA, PREBAJNE ANABEL LI.

NOĆ PLIMOM BIJE - DUH KRAJ NJE BDIJE
KRAJ GROBA NJENA, GDE TIHO SPI-
UZ SVIRKU VALA, KRAJ ROMON ŽALA
GDE MORE SINJE SNE SVOJE SNI.
"Ulalume" (1847)
Thus I pacified Psyche and kissed her,
And tempted her out of her gloom—
And conquered her scruples and gloom;
And we passed to the end of the vista,
But were stopped by the door of a tomb—
By the door of a legended tomb;
And I said: “What is written, sweet sister,
On the door of this legended tomb?”
She replied: “Ulalume -Ulalume—
‘Tis the vault of thy lost Ulalume!”
Then my heart it grew ashen and sober
As the leaves that were crisped and sere—
As the leaves that were withering and sere;
And I cried: “It was surely October
On this very night of last year
That I journeyed—I journeyed down here!—
That I brought a dread burden down here—
On this night of all nights in the year,
Ah, what demon hath tempted me here?
/ula'lu:m/
"Lenore" (1843)
See! on yon drear and rigid bier low lies thy love, Lenore!
Come! let the burial rite be read--the funeral song be sung!--
An anthem for the queenliest dead that ever died so young--
A dirge for her the doubly dead in that she died so young.

“Avaunt! to-night my heart is light. No dirge will I upraise,
But waft the angel on her flight with a Pæan of old days!
Let no bell toll! -lest her sweet soul, amid its hallowed mirth,
Should catch the note, as it doth float up from the damned Earth.
To friends above, from fiends below, the indignant ghost is riven -
From Hell unto a high estate far up within the Heaven -
From grief and groan to a golden throne beside the King of Heaven."
the lulling and melancholic
“L” sound

Poems like SONGS -- sonorous
Now, never losing sight of the object—supremeness or perfection at all points, I asked myself —
“Of all melancholy topics what, according to the universal understanding of mankind, is the most melancholy?”

Death
, was the obvious reply. “And when,” I said, “is this most melancholy of topics most poetical?” From what I have already explained at some length the answer here also is obvious— “When it most closely allies itself to Beauty:
the death then of a beautiful woman is unquestionably the most poetical topic in the world,
and equally is it beyond doubt that the lips best suited for such topic are those of a bereaved lover.”
“The Philosophy of Composition” (1846)
true poets are made, not born
These points being settled, I next bethought me of
the nature of my refrain
. Since its application was to be repeatedly varied it was clear that the refrain itself
must be brief
... This led me at once to
a single word as the best refrain.
The question now arose as to the character of the word. Having made up my mind to a refrain, the division of the poem into stanzas was of course a corollary,
the refrain forming the close to each stanza.
That such a close, to have force,
must be sonorous
and susceptible of protracted emphasis, admitted no doubt, and these considerations inevitably led me to
the long “o”
as the most sonorous vowel
in connection with “r”
as the most producible consonant.
In such a search it would have been absolutely impossible to overlook
the word “Nevermore.”
In fact it was the very first which presented itself.
Here then the poem may be said to have had its beginning—
at the end where all works of art should begin
—for it was here at this point of my preconsiderations that I first put pen to paper in the composition of the stanza:

“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil! prophet still if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us—by that God we both adore,
Tell this soul with sorrow laden, if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore-
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.”
Quoth the Raven— “Nevermore.”
comic possibilities in the essay?

“the bird beat the bug [“The Gold-Bug,” which had been popular] all hollow”...
I made the night tempestuous
, first to account for the Raven’s seeking admission, and secondly, for the effect of contrast with the (physical) serenity within the chamber.

I made the bird alight on the bust of Pallas
, also for the effect of contrast between the marble and the plumage...
PALLAS = ATHENA
, THE GODDESS OF WISDOM IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY + SONOROUS WORD
a typically Gothic setting and the repetition of the word “nevermore” -- DRAMATIC

the “unity of effect”
the effect of melancholy + the repetition of the word “nevermore” + emphasized “o” sound in connection with “r” = add to
the larger meaning of the poem
THE LENGTH:

“there is a distinct limit, as regards length, to all works of literary art—
the limit of a single sitting

Critics more attentive to the raven than “The Raven”
“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil—prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us—by that God we both adore—
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if
, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore

Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.”
Quoth the Raven “Nevermore.”
„Proroce il stvore vražiji, djavole il tico, kaži,
zaklinjem te nebom sklonim i Gospodom ponajviše,
dal’ ću dušu namucenu priljubiti u Edenu
uz devojku ozarenu koju svi mi snovi sniše,
uz Lenoru kojoj ime serafimi podariše?“
Rece Gavran: „Nikad više.“

(translated by Vladeta Košutić)
"Eldorado"
Gaily bedight,
A gallant knight,
In sunshine and in shadow,
Had journeyed long,
Singing a song,
In search of Eldorado.

But he grew old—
This knight so bold—
And o’er his heart a shadow—
Fell as he found
No spot of ground
That looked like Eldorado.
And, as his strength
Failed him at length,
He met a pilgrim shadow—
‘Shadow,’ said he,
‘Where can it be—
This land of Eldorado?’

‘Over the Mountains
Of the Moon,
Down the Valley of the Shadow
,
Ride, boldly ride,’
The shade replied,—
‘If you seek for Eldorado!’
Psalm 23 in the
Old Testament Book of Psalms
:

“Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me;”
"Putrid" = decaying with disgusting smell
"The Oval Portrait"
Full transcript