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Intellectual Disabilities

SPE 203

Bridget Byrne

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disabilities Bridget, Bethanie, Emma, and Mackenzie Definition “significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s education performance” Causes Educational
Practices &
Interventions Exceptionality Presentation IDEA defines intellectual disability as... [34 CFR §300.8(c)(6)] American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) states that an “[Intellectual disability] is … characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual function and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.” people with intellectual disabilities can learn it just takes them longer

they generally have trouble in areas including memory, attention, and language Common

trouble understanding certain things including making change with money and problem solving

also have trouble understanding rules and the possible consequences of their actions

have trouble thinkig logically including goal setting and making choices An accurate diagnosis of an Intellectual Disability requires 3 components: •An IQ score of approximately 70 or below

•A determination of deficits in adaptive behavior

•Origins of the disability prior to age 18. Skills commonly taught to students with Intellectual disabilities communication with others
dressing, bathing, going to the bathroom
health and safety (reading signs an instructions, taking measurements)
helping to set the table, clean the house, or cook dinner
manners, knowing the rules of conversation, getting along with others
reading, writing, basic math
skills that help them in the workplace Prevalence prevalence studies often times don't show all people with an intellectual disability Levels
Disabilities Mild IQ of 50/55-70
can tend to their personal needs
are largely independent in school and in everyday life
interact with others successfully Moderate IQ of 35/40-50/55
can tend to their personal needs
can participate in conversations
can hold different kinds of jobs Severe Severe IQ of 20/25-35/40
by adulthood have learned basic functional skills with support (eating, dressing, etc.)
physical ability is usually fair to good
does not know many academic skills
communicate using signs, words, and symbols Profound IQ below 20/25
may not speak at all
very limited sensory and motor skills
most people still have the ability to learn and to have partial participation 70-85% of all students with intellectual disabilities have mild to moderate intellectual disabilities sitting up, crawling, or walking later than other kids

learning to talk late or trouble speaking

finds it hard to remember things (memory recall) Characteristics Include... (keep in mind that an average IQ score is around 100) Genetic conditions
Problems during pregnancy
Problems at birth
Health problems Genetic conditions Examples:
Down Syndrome
-Trisomy 21
Fragile-X Syndrome
-X-linked transmission
Prader-Willi Syndrome
-chromosome anomaly on chromosome 15
Angelman Syndrome
-portion of chromosome 15 missing
PKU (Phenylketonuria)
inability to process Phenylalanine Amino Acid
due to missing/defective enzyme - Problems during pregnancy Alcohol/drug use
-fetal alcohol syndome
(consumption of alcohol during pregnancy)
exposure to environmental toxins
maternal illness
-Rubella, Syphilis, etc. Problems at birth premature
extremely low birth weight
difficulties during delivery
(birth injuries, temporary oxygen deprivation) Health problems infections
-meningitis, encephalitis, whooping cough, measles

(head trauma) Educational Practices Evidence reveals that students with intellectual disabilities can learn far more than we anticipated in the past but need more time to learn and benefit from effective instructional practices Overwhelming evidence indicates that good instruction can promote skill development and a better quality of life Importance of educational intervention: enables students to successfully transition through school into adult life Early Intervention Early experiences of children have an important influence on their later development

Effective early intervention programs can have a significant positive influence on a student’s: intelligence level
academic achievement
social competence Early Intervention (cont.) These programs are sought out by parents of children with severe intellectual disabilities

Programs can maximize the child’s development, prevent secondary disabilities, and provide important support for the child’s family

Early intervention programs for children with intellectual disabilities should be family-centered, and teaching should be developmentally appropriate FAMILY-CENTERED programs: programs that provide services directly to the family, addressing the family’s needs an increasing their ability to support. DEVELOPMENTALLY-APPROPRIATE practices: instructional activities and individually appropriate, age appropriate, and reflective of the social and cultural conditions of the child’s life. Classroom Interventions Use of systematic instruction and technology to address instructional needs of students with disabilities.

Functional Curriculum Versus the General Curriculum: Since the 1970’s teaching functional skills to students with disabilities has been the primary curricular philosophy. Inclusion
vs. segregated classrooms Much of the research that has been conducted has shown that students with intellectual disabilities benefit from spending a large proportion of the school day in general education classrooms Effectiveness of segregated classrooms: “Children with milder mental levels of intellectual disabilities achieve more positive results in the integrated classroom than do their counterparts in segregated settings” (Freeman and Alkin 2000).

The placement of students “with mental retardation in general education classrooms tends to improve their social skills and competence” (page 15). Effectiveness of segregated classooms (cont.)

Only 21% of all students with disabilities spend most of the day segregated from peers, compared to 57% of students with intellectual disabilities. affects 1 in 10 families in the United States

an estimated 7-8 million Americans of all ages have an intellectual disability Teachers should teach skills in integrated clusters that build on one another

All objectives should focus on increasing independence or participation, or self-determination

Teacher should teach important skills contributing to all life domains within functional routines and contexts (Natural Environment) IDEA requires students have access to the general ed curriculum as much as possible Creating a Universal Curriculum 1.Multiple means of representation- reaching out to all students
2.Multiple means of expression- Ex: Instead of giving a written or oral response, they might respond through the use of an alternative or augmentative communication device (AAC)
3.Multiple means of engagement- Ex: working with a peer instead of working alone Has been proven to be the most effective approach to instruction based on extensive research regarding what a teacher should do to begin a lesson, present information during the lesson, guide student practice after instruction, correct student work and provide feedback, plan and carry out student seat work, and follow-up the lesson. Direct Instruction Assistive Technology -Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability” (IDEA 2004 Sec.620[1]).

-Important to note that educators consider AT when planning IEP’s as well as planning lessons for students with disabilities. Universal Design for Learning Transition into Adult Life
Teaching self-determination The use of technology to provide all students with access to the general education curriculum Job Opportunities Cooking with Aunt Maggie http://www.cultureunplugged.com/documentary/watch-online/play/8924/Including-Samuel Including Samuel Monica & David Monica & David
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