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Rise of Islam
Transcript of Rise of Islam
Abbasid Dynasty -- Islamic Golden Age
Calls for First Crusade
Siege and capture of
Start of Second Crusade
Defeat of Second Crusade
Saladin retakes Jerusalem
Crusader States; Third Crusade
Richard III (Richard the Lionheart);
Pope Innocent III Announces
Sack of Constantinople
by Fourth Crusade
Pope Gregory VII
University College Oxford Founded
Reims Cathedral Completed
Aquinas Writes Summa Theologica
William of Ockham Writes Summa Logicae
Council of Constance -- Conciliarism
Nominalism / Vountarism
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980-1037
Essence and Existence
Whether sacred doctrine is a science?
Objection 1: It seems that sacred doctrine is not a science. For every science proceeds from self-evident principles. But sacred doctrine proceeds from articles of faith which are not self-evident, since their truth is not admitted by all: "For all men have not faith" (2 Thess. 3:2). Therefore sacred doctrine is not a science.
Objection 2: Further, no science deals with individual facts. But this sacred science treats of individual facts, such as the deeds of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and such like. Therefore sacred doctrine is not a science.
On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. xiv, 1) "to this science alone belongs that whereby saving faith is begotten, nourished, protected and strengthened." But this can be said of no science except sacred doctrine. Therefore sacred doctrine is a science.
I answer that, Sacred doctrine is a science. We must bear in mind that there are two kinds of sciences. There are some which proceed from a principle known by the natural light of intelligence, such as arithmetic and geometry and the like. There are some which proceed from principles known by the light of a higher science: thus the science of perspective proceeds from principles established by geometry, and music from principles established by arithmetic. So it is that sacred doctrine is a science because it proceeds from principles established by the light of a higher science, namely, the science of God and the blessed. Hence, just as the musician accepts on authority the principles taught him by the mathematician, so sacred science is established on principles revealed by God.
Reply to Objection 1: The principles of any science are either in themselves self-evident, or reducible to the conclusions of a higher science; and such, as we have said, are the principles of sacred doctrine.
Reply to Objection 2: Individual facts are treated of in sacred doctrine, not because it is concerned with them principally, but they are introduced rather both as examples to be followed in our lives (as in moral sciences) and in order to establish the authority of those men through whom the divine revelation, on which this sacred scripture or doctrine is based, has come down to us.
Whether God exists?
Objection 1: It seems that God does not exist; because if one of two contraries be infinite, the other would be altogether destroyed. But the word "God" means that He is infinite goodness. If, therefore, God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world. Therefore God does not exist.
Objection 2: Further, it is superfluous to suppose that what can be accounted for by a few principles has been produced by many. But it seems that everything we see in the world can be accounted for by other principles, supposing God did not exist. For all natural things can be reduced to one principle which is nature; and all voluntary things can be reduced to one principle which is human reason, or will. Therefore there is no need to suppose God's existence.
On the contrary, It is said in the person of God: "I am Who am." (Ex. 3:14)
I answer that, The existence of God can be proved in five ways.
The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion. It is certain, and evident to our senses, that in the world some things are in motion. Now whatever is in motion is put in motion by another, for nothing can be in motion except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is in motion; whereas a thing moves inasmuch as it is in act. For motion is nothing else than the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality. But nothing can be reduced from potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of actuality. Thus that which is actually hot, as fire, makes wood, which is potentially hot, to be actually hot, and thereby moves and changes it. Now it is not possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in the same respect, but only in different respects. For what is actually hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously potentially cold. It is therefore impossible that in the same respect and in the same way a thing should be both mover and moved, i.e. that it should move itself. Therefore, whatever is in motion must be put in motion by another. If that by which it is put in motion be itself put in motion, then this also must needs be put in motion by another, and that by another again. But this cannot go on to infinity, because then there would be no first mover, and, consequently, no other mover; seeing that subsequent movers move only inasmuch as they are put in motion by the first mover; as the staff moves only because it is put in motion by the hand. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.
The second way is from the nature of the efficient cause. In the world of sense we find there is an order of efficient causes. There is no case known (neither is it, indeed, possible) in which a thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to itself, which is impossible. Now in efficient causes it is not possible to go on to infinity, because in all efficient causes following in order, the first is the cause of the intermediate cause, and the intermediate is the cause of the ultimate cause, whether the intermediate cause be several, or only one. Now to take away the cause is to take away the effect. Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes, there will be no ultimate, nor any intermediate cause. But if in efficient causes it is possible to go on to infinity, there will be no first efficient cause, neither will there be an ultimate effect, nor any intermediate efficient causes; all of which is plainly false. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.
The third way is taken from possibility and necessity, and runs thus. We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, since they are found to be generated, and to corrupt, and consequently, they are possible to be and not to be. But it is impossible for these always to exist, for that which is possible not to be at some time is not. Therefore, if everything is possible not to be, then at one time there could have been nothing in existence. Now if this were true, even now there would be nothing in existence, because that which does not exist only begins to exist by something already existing. Therefore, if at one time nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything to have begun to exist; and thus even now nothing would be in existence---which is absurd. Therefore, not all beings are merely possible, but there must exist something the existence of which is necessary. But every necessary thing either has its necessity caused by another, or not. Now it is impossible to go on to infinity in necessary things which have their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in regard to efficient causes. Therefore we cannot but postulate the existence of some being having of itself its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing in others their necessity. This all men speak of as God.
The fourth way is taken from the gradation to be found in things. Among beings there are some more and some less good, true, noble and the like. But "more" and "less" are predicated of different things, according as they resemble in their different ways something which is the maximum, as a thing is said to be hotter according as it more nearly resembles that which is hottest; so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in Metaph. ii. Now the maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus; as fire, which is the maximum heat, is the cause of all hot things. Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.
The fifth way is taken from the governance of the world. We see that things which lack intelligence, such as natural bodies, act for an end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the same way, so as to obtain the best result. Hence it is plain that not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end. Now whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence; as the arrow is shot to its mark by the archer. Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.
Reply to Objection 1: As Augustine says (Enchiridion xi): "Since God is the highest good, He would not allow any evil to exist in His works, unless His omnipotence and goodness were such as to bring good even out of evil." This is part of the infinite goodness of God, that He should allow evil to exist, and out of it produce good.
Reply to Objection 2: Since nature works for a determinate end under the direction of a higher agent, whatever is done by nature must needs be traced back to God, as to its first cause. So also whatever is done voluntarily must also be traced back to some higher cause other than human reason or will, since these can change or fail; for all things that are changeable and capable of defect must be traced back to an immovable and self-necessary first principle, as was shown in the body of the Article.
OF THE SIMPLICITY OF GOD (EIGHT ARTICLES)
When the existence of a thing has been ascertained there remains the further question of the manner of its existence, in order that we may know its essence. Now, because we cannot know what God is, but rather what He is not, we have no means for considering how God is, but rather how He is not.
Therefore, we must consider: (1) How He is not; (2) How He is known by us; (3) How He is named.
Now it can be shown how God is not, by denying Him whatever is opposed to the idea of Him, viz. composition, motion, and the like. Therefore (1) we must discuss His simplicity, whereby we deny composition in Him; and because whatever is simple in material things is imperfect and a part of something else, we shall discuss (2) His perfection; (3) His infinity; (4) His immutability; (5) His unity.
Concerning His simplicity, there are eight points of inquiry:
(1) Whether God is a body?
(2) Whether He is composed of matter and form?
(3) Whether in Him there is composition of quiddity, essence or nature, and subject?
(4) Whether He is composed of essence and existence?
(5) Whether He is composed of genus and difference?
(6) Whether He is composed of subject and accident?
(7) Whether He is in any way composite, or wholly simple?
(8) Whether He enters into composition with other things?
Whether God is a body?
Objection 1: It seems that God is a body. For a body is that which has the three dimensions. But Holy Scripture attributes the three dimensions to God, for it is written: "He is higher than Heaven, and what wilt thou do? He is deeper than Hell, and how wilt thou know? The measure of Him is longer than the earth and broader than the sea" (Job 11:8, 9). Therefore God is a body.
Objection 2: Further, everything that has figure is a body, since figure is a quality of quantity. But God seems to have figure, for it is written: "Let us make man to our image and likeness" (Gn. 1:26). Now a figure is called an image, according to the text: "Who being the brightness of His glory and the figure," i.e. the image, "of His substance" (Heb. 1:3). Therefore God is a body.
Objection 3: Further, whatever has corporeal parts is a body. Now Scripture attributes corporeal parts to God. "Hast thou an arm like God?" (Job 40:4); and "The eyes of the Lord are upon the just" (Ps. 33:16); and "The right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength" (Ps. 117:16). Therefore God is a body.
Objection 4: Further, posture belongs only to bodies. But something which supposes posture is said of God in the Scriptures: "I saw the Lord sitting" (Is. 6:1), and "He standeth up to judge" (Is. 3:13). Therefore God is a body.
Objection 5: Further, only bodies or things corporeal can be a local term "wherefrom" or "whereto." But in the Scriptures God is spoken of as a local term "whereto," according to the words, "Come ye to Him and be enlightened" (Ps. 33:6), and as a term "wherefrom": "All they that depart from Thee shall be written in the earth" (Jer. 17:13). Therefore God is a body.
On the contrary, It is written in the Gospel of St. John (Jn. 4:24): "God is a spirit."
I answer that, It is absolutely true that God is not a body; and this can be shown in three ways. First, because no body is in motion unless it be put in motion, as is evident from induction. Now it has been already proved (Q, A), that God is the First Mover, and is Himself unmoved. Therefore it is clear that God is not a body. Secondly, because the first being must of necessity be in act, and in no way in potentiality. For although in any single thing that passes from potentiality to actuality, the potentiality is prior in time to the actuality; nevertheless, absolutely speaking, actuality is prior to potentiality; for whatever is in potentiality can be reduced into actuality only by some being in actuality. Now it has been already proved that God is the First Being. It is therefore impossible that in God there should be any potentiality. But every body is in potentiality because the continuous, as such, is divisible to infinity; it is therefore impossible that God should be a body. Thirdly, because God is the most noble of beings. Now it is impossible for a body to be the most noble of beings; for a body must be either animate or inanimate; and an animate body is manifestly nobler than any inanimate body. But an animate body is not animate precisely as body; otherwise all bodies would be animate. Therefore its animation depends upon some other thing, as our body depends for its animation on the soul. Hence that by which a body becomes animated must be nobler than the body. Therefore it is impossible that God should be a body.
Reply to Objection 1: As we have said above (Q, A), Holy Writ puts before us spiritual and divine things under the comparison of corporeal things. Hence, when it attributes to God the three dimensions under the comparison of corporeal quantity, it implies His virtual quantity; thus, by depth, it signifies His power of knowing hidden things; by height, the transcendence of His excelling power; by length, the duration of His existence; by breadth, His act of love for all. Or, as says Dionysius (Div. Nom. ix), by the depth of God is meant the incomprehensibility of His essence; by length, the procession of His all-pervading power; by breadth, His overspreading all things, inasmuch as all things lie under His protection.
Reply to Objection 2: Man is said to be after the image of God, not as regards his body, but as regards that whereby he excels other animals. Hence, when it is said, "Let us make man to our image and likeness", it is added, "And let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea" (Gn. 1:26). Now man excels all animals by his reason and intelligence; hence it is according to his intelligence and reason, which are incorporeal, that man is said to be according to the image of God.
Reply to Objection 3: Corporeal parts are attributed to God in Scripture on account of His actions, and this is owing to a certain parallel. For instance the act of the eye is to see; hence the eye attributed to God signifies His power of seeing intellectually, not sensibly; and so on with the other parts.
Reply to Objection 4: Whatever pertains to posture, also, is only attributed to God by some sort of parallel. He is spoken of as sitting, on account of His unchangeableness and dominion; and as standing, on account of His power of overcoming whatever withstands Him.
Reply to Objection 5: We draw near to God by no corporeal steps, since He is everywhere, but by the affections of our soul, and by the actions of that same soul do we withdraw from Him; thus, to draw near to or to withdraw signifies merely spiritual actions based on the metaphor of local motion.
What does the Letter of Prester John tell us about the hopes of people in the Middle Ages?
What does the letter tell us about geography and communications?
What does the letter suggest about literature, truth, millennialism, and mysticism?
What are the reasons Urban gives for crusade?
How do you evaluate the call to crusade?
What does Urban's speech suggest about sermons, groups, millennialism and mysticism?
Muhammad's First Revelations
Qu'ran: "to recite"
Hijrah -- year of migration from Mecca resulting from persecution
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To idolaters: worship the one true God or face executions.
Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and Sabeans:
-- "protected people" with limited rights (ban on proselyting Muslims)
Five Pillars of Islam
Shahada: recitation that there is no God but God and that Mumammad is his messenger
Prayer five times a day
Alms to the poor (about 3%)
Pilgrimage to Mecca if possible
Fasting during the month of Ramadan
Oral tradition surrounding Muhammad and his followers:
, oral traditions, second in authority to Qur'an
Develpment of body of law based on Qur'an and hadith:
"Mosquée Masjid el Haram à la Mecque" by Tab59 - Flickr: Mosquée Masjid el Haram à la Mecque. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mosqu%C3%A9e_Masjid_el_Haram_%C3%A0_la_Mecque.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Mosqu%C3%A9e_Masjid_el_Haram_%C3%A0_la_Mecque.jpg
Muhammad Argues for Purge of the Ka'bah in Mecca
Muhammad's Faction Defeats the Bedouins in Mecca and Muhammad Re-enters Mecca and Cleanses the Ka'bah
Muhammad Dies; Beginnings of
dar al Islam
(house of Islam)
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Siege of Jerusalem (Rashidun Caliphate vs. Byzantine Army) Solidifies Arab Control Over Palestine
"Dome of the Rock viewed through Bab al-Qattanin" by en:User:Gilabrand - en:Image:TempmtS.jpg. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dome_of_the_Rock_viewed_through_Bab_al-Qattanin.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Dome_of_the_Rock_viewed_through_Bab_al-Qattanin.jpg
Start of Investiture Controversy
"<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flickr_-_Gaspa_-_Cairo,_museo_militare_(8).jpg#mediaviewer/File:Flickr_-_Gaspa_-_Cairo,_museo_militare_(8).jpg">Flickr - Gaspa - Cairo, museo militare (8)</a>" by <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.flickr.com/people/20945389@N00">Francesco Gasparetti</a> from Senigallia, Italy - <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/20945389@N00/348667108/">Cairo: museo militare</a>. Licensed under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0" title="Creative Commons Attribution 2.0">CC BY 2.0</a> via <a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
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Siege of Acre
Fourth Lateran Council
Substance / Accidents = transubstantiation
Clergy serve bread only to congregants during Mass
Omnis utriusque sexus -- congregants should confess to a Priest at least once a year
Jews and Muslims to wear special clothes to distinguish them from Christians
Condemnation of Simony
Jews forbidden from holding public offices
Call for Crusade
No taxes on the Church
Pope Innocent III
Call for Eastern Church to Submit to Latin Church
Hildegard of Bingen
King Phillip II "Diploma" for Security of Scholars in Paris Under Ecclesial Jurisdiction Only
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Spread of the Plague: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Blackdeath2.gif
Avignon Papacy Begins
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"Your venerable conceitedness may know, that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters" -- French King Phillip IV to Pope Boniface VII, 1301
Pope Boniface Issues Unam Sanctam
"Therefore, of the one and only Church there is one body and one head, not two heads like a monster"
"We are informed by the texts of the gospels that in this Church and in its power are two swords; namely, the spiritual and the temporal"
"Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff."
Avignon Papacy Ends
Pope Gregory IX Returns to Rome
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Syriac (Church of the East) Patriarch Timothy's Dialogue With Abbasid Caliph Mahdi
Jesus -- Isa:
the prophet before Muhammed
God is one, not a Trinity
Influenced by Syriac Christological debates and Gnostic texts?
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700 - 800's
Church of the East Missions in China, India, Mongolia
Role of Indulgences
Pogroms in Germany by Peasant Armies
Peter the Hermit and the "People's Crusade"
Commissioned Armies and Nobles Converge on Constantinople
Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus Extracts Oaths of Loyalty from Crusader Armies
Baldwin of Boulogne Separates and Takes Edessa and Establishes First Crusader State
Seige of Antioch by Main Body of Crusaders
Focus on Spain and Slavic Tribes
Defeats in the Holy Land
Note changing use of term
"And if you desire to know what was done with the enemy who were found there, know that in Solomon's Porch and in his temple our men rode in the blood of the Saracens up to the knees of their horses."
-- Daimbert, Godfrey and Raymond, Letter to the Pope (1099)
"Knights of the true God, protected on all sides by the sign of the Cross, rushed pell-mell and courageously struck the Turks. In the ensuing rout the besieged scurried to safety by way of the narrow bridge to Antioch. The survivors, who could not push their way through the jam of people and horses, were snuffed out in everlasting death, and their miserable souls returned to the devil and his legions. We knocked them in the head and drove them into the river with our deadly lances so that the waters of the swift Orontes seemed to flow crimson with Turkish blood. If by chance one of them crawled up the bridge posts or struggled to swim to land, he was wounded. All along the river banks we stood pushing and drowning the pagans in the pull of the rapid stream."
-- Account of Priest Peter Tudebode
"Our men immediately made preparations after receiving news of the burial of their foes and hastened to the diabolical chapel, where they duly ordered the corpses to be dug up, the tombs smashed, and the cadavers to be pulled out of their graves. They then tossed all of the bodies into a pit and carried the decapitated heads to their tents. Thus they had a perfect count of the casualties with the exception of four horse loads of heads carried to the lieutenants of the Emir of Cairo, who were encamped by the sea. The sight of this action caused the Turks to be dejected and grief‑stricken almost to death, and daily they did nothing but weep and wail." -- Account of Peter Toudebode
"All of the streets of Antioch were choked with corpses so that the stench of rotting bodies was unendurable, and no one could walk the streets without tripping over a cadaver." -- Account of Peter Toudebode
Siege of Acre
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