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Good Academic Practice

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Niamh Downing

on 7 December 2017

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Transcript of Good Academic Practice

Suitable Sources
Heck NO!!!!
Good Academic Practice
Research, Referencing,
& Avoiding Plagiarism

You can use information from a variety of sources, including: books, journal articles, archival sources, some websites.
Or see http://www.mhra.org.uk
Quick Question
Which are suitable sources for an essay on Shakespeare's sonnets
a. Wikipedia
b. Robert Matz, "The Scandals of Shakespeare's Sonnets" ELH 77.2:2010
c. d.
Keep note of which ideas/quotes/etc., come from which source, and retain the exact wording. (You can paraphrase when you write your essay.)
Keep track of your sources: try using a bibliographic software like Refworks or Zotero. Rachel Browning, the Academic Liaison Librarian can tell you more about this.
Step #1
Begin Your Research
For details of how to present your footnote references use the reference style guide in Key Documents
If the words or ideas didn't come from your own brain - they don't belong to you!!!
Plagiarism - when a writer uses
someone else's language,
ideas, or other original (not
common-knowledge) material
Step #2. Taking Notes
Once you have located your scholarly sources, you can begin using the ideas to construct your argument. BUT, remember these 3 things...
Your bibliography will look something like this:

Archer-Straw, Petrine, Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and
Black Culture in the 1920s (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000)
Bad Education (La Mala Educación), Scene 5. ‘Alma Mater’. Dir.
Pedro Almodóvar. Pathé. 2004
Churchill, Caryl, Top Girls, [1982] in The Methuen Book of
Modern Drama, ed. by Graham Whybrow (London: Methuen, 2001), pp. 5-100


Check the reference style guide for full
details of how to present your bibliography.
Quotations longer than 3 lines should be indented, and do not need quotation marks
"Direct quotes of 3 lines or less are presented inside quotation marks".
If you paraphrase the original quote (rewrite it in your own words) there will be no quotation marks. BUT, you still need a reference.
Partial quotes use quotation marks "only around the material" that is being used exactly as "written".
And, make sure you use the appropriate MHRA format for the particular type of source - a book is formatted differently than a website, an article is formatted differently than a television program...and so on...
How & When
to Attribute
Referring to existing scholarship shows
your knowledge of the field of study
your ability to engage with critical debates
your ability to synthesise ideas and concepts
Journal articles from academic peer-reviewed journals (library or databases like Project Muse, JSTOR, EBSCO)
Books/Monographs written by academic scholars about the text (Tremough and Exeter libraries)
Archive documents such as court records, newspapers, oral histories (Hard copy, online or EEBO, ECCO
A' Level texts such as SparkNotes
Websites like shakespeareonline.com
Any material written by a non-expert
Undergraduate essays
Maybe-Maybe Not
articles from websites like stanford.edu
contemporary texts written at the same time as your primary text
How do I know if it's ok?
Authority - is it written by a credible expert/scholar (peer-reviewed)?
Currency - is it the most up-to-date research on the subject or text?
Relevance - why are you using a media studies article to discuss Jane Austen or Milton?
If I don't know, I should ask my module tutor...
Is this plagiarism?
You read a text, think about it and summarise the ideas in your essay. You provide a reference at the end of the sentence.
This is
Is this plagiarism?

You use direct quotation add a reference, but forget to put quotation marks around the cited text.
Is this plagiarism?
You find a company on the Internet and pay them to write your essay.
Is this plagiarism?
You read some interesting ideas in a book from the library. You paraphrase them in your essay without providing a reference.
This is not plagiarism
Is this

You quote
several lines of
text from a
source. You don't use quotation marks. You do indent the text and provide a reference.
Is this plagiarism?

You take a couple of useful words from a source and add them to your own paragraph You don't use quotation marks as its not worth it for one or two words.
Is this plagiarism?

You discuss your ideas with a friend and both end up writing similar essays.
Is this plagiarism?

You wrote an essay for A' Level or last year on this subject. You use one or two paragraphs in your new essay
Is this plagiarism? You copy and paste two sentences from a website. You provide a reference
Is this plagiarism?
You take detailed notes of everything your lecturer said in the lecture. There is no need to do your own analysis or reading, as they have covered it all for you. So, you type up the notes in your essay .
How many did YOU get right
academic misconduct
how can I avoid it?
B or D would be suitable. B is an article from an academic journal available on Project Muse. D is a book by a well-known Shakespeare scholar that you would find in the library.
Don't forget, you
should always use
scholarship about the
primary text as well
as theoretical
Next Step...
Make a print copy of the text and annotate it, or keep a separate sheet of notes for EACH resource.
When you have added all the footnote references to the body of the essay, you need to add a bbibliography page of all the sources that appear in your footnotes.
All the sources that you cite should also appear in the bibliography page at the end of your essay...
Helpful Hint:
referencing software like RefWorks or Zotero formats your footnotes for you, and creates a bibliography
Step # 3 Referencing
References identify the sources of the material you refer to in your written work. You must:
- include footnote or in-text parenthetical references to everything you have cited, paraphrased or from which you have drawn ideas.

-write out those references according to the MHRA format in the reference style guide, see
Key Documents
on the
English and Writing Learning Space

- include a bibliography at the end of your essay

The same referencing rules apply to presentations as essays
Footnote References

Footnotes are preferred over in-text parentheses (Walker 2010) as they make the essay easier to read. Footnotes can be made easily in any word processing software. Check it out here:

Don't use endnotes.

Your footnote will look something like this:
1. Petrine Archer-Straw, Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and Black Culture in the 1920s (London: Thames & Hudson, 2000), p.93.
The Art of Quotation
Your essay should provide a balance between discussion and synthesis of the scholarship and/or theory that you have read, alongside your own in-depth analysis of the primary text you are writing about. You should therefore use quotation from the scholarship to help construct or situate your argument AND quotation from the primary text to illustrate your argument.

My own rule of thumb is that for every 5 lines of quotation, I aim to write 15 lines of discussion or textual analysis (close reading). Don't simply sandwich together large sections of quotation with a few sentences of your own.
- find good sources and cite them properly

- make careful notes on the sources and distinguish the
ideas of others from your own

- use the style guide and learn how to reference properly

- book a session with ASK

- use Turnitin to double check your references
plagiarism always gets discovered in the end
Find out how to upload an assignment to TurnItIn at Falmouth: http://learningspace.falmouth.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=696
Read the Academic Integrity Policy http://www.falmouth.ac.uk/student-regulations

it's still PLAGIARISM
Deliberate or accidental,
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