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anatomy and physiology

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by

Howard Leung

on 27 January 2013

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Transcript of anatomy and physiology

Abdomen Thorax Upper Limb Lower limb Head and Neck Certificate course Anatomy & physiology STILL REMEMBER?.... Anatomical position STILL REMEMBER?.... Terms of movement Flexion
flexion at a joint results in a decrease of the angle between the two segments that meet at that joint
Extension
extension at a joint results in an increase of the angle between the two segments that meet at that joint
if the movement occurs beyond the extended position, the action is called hyperextension Movements in the sagittal plane Movements in the frontal plane Abduction
occurs when a body part is moved away from the midline of the body
e.g. shoulder, hip, fingers
Adduction
occurs when a body part is moved toward the midline of the body
e.g. shoulder, hip, fingers
remember “add to your midline”
e.g. shoulder, hip, fingers Inversion
Turning the sole of the foot inward at the ankle (so the sole of the foot faces toward the midline

Eversion
turning the sole of the foot outward at the ankle (so the sole of the foot faces away from the midline)

Elevation
raising a part to a superior position
e.g. raising your shoulders toward your ears; closing your jaw

Depression
lowering a part to an inferior position
e.g. lowering your shoulders to normal or lower than normal position; lowering your jaw to an open position Movements in the transverse plane Rotation
the movement of a bone around its own axis; this is also known as a pivot
e.g. the head, neck, and trunk can pivot around the longitudinal axis

Internal (medial) rotation
Rotation towards the midline
E.g. turning forearn in towards body

External (lateral) rotation
Rotation away from midline
E.g. turning forearm away from body Protraction
Sticking jaw out (pouting)

Retraction
Bringing jaw back to anatomical position
Lateral bending
bending of the spinal column in the frontal plane to the left or right
e.g. bending side to side at the waist Pronation
rotation of the forearm and hand to the palms down position

Supination
rotation of the forearm and hand to the palms up position (remember holding a cup of “soup”)

Protraction
Shoulder rounding (hunching shoulders)

Retraction
Bringing shoulders back to anatomical position, or squeezing shoulder blades together at back Still remember?... Abdomen Surface anatomy How the difestive system works? How it looks like when the abdominal vall is removed What organs involved? Stomach Helicobacter pylori A common cause for peptic ulcer Helicobacter pylori A common cause for peptic ulcer Liver Carbohydrate metabolism
Lipid metabolism
Protein metabolism
Removes many harmful substances from blood
Excretion of bilirubin
Stores fat-soluble vitamins (ADEK) and minerals (Fe, Cu)
Activates vitamin D Function of Liver Pancreas Endocrine gland
producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide,
Digestive organ
secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine Function of Pancreas Diabetes mellitus Type 1
results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. What is Diabetes mellitus type 2?? results from insulin resistance,
a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.

This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". Insulin injection Gallbladder Gallstone a small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Small intestine Large intestine Appendix absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body. the absorption of nutrients and minerals found in food. How it looks like when the digestive organs are removed? Digestive organs Kidney Inside the kidney How the kidney works? Spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system. Adrenal glands How it looks in it Cortex: steroid hormone
Medulla: adrenaline/noradrenaline Other? Cushing's syndrome describes the signs and symptoms associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately high levels of the hormone cortisol.
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