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Transcript of Learning Disabilities
John F. Kennedy
Jeffery Gallant (Judge)
Politics & Law
Scientists and Inventors
Dane Anita Roddick (Body Shop)
Sid Meier (Hall of Fame Game Designer)
Reyn Guyer, inventor of Nerf balls & Twister
Ann Bancroft (Polar Expeditions)
Fred Epstein (Breakthroughs in Pediatric Neurosurgery)
John Skoyles (Neuroscientist)
Edward Hallowell (Psychiatrist)
Emma King (Physicist/Cosmologist)
Experts believe these famous People through History may have had LDs
General George Patton
Alexander Graham Bell
George C. Scott
A learning disorder evident in both academic and social situations that involves one or more of the processes necessary for the proper use of spoken language or the symbols of communication, and that is characterized by a condition that:
is not primarily the result of: impairment of vision; impairment of hearing; physical disability; developmental disability; primary emotional disturbance; cultural difference;
results in a significant discrepancy between academic achievement and assessed intellectual ability, with deficits in one or more of the following:
receptive language (listening, reading);
language processing (thinking,
expressive language (talking, spelling,
Ministry of Education
The large range of characteristics of this population muddies the clarity among categories of exceptionality
LD is often confused with those with mild intellectual disabilities, behavioural disorders, or with ADHD
Some people deny the existence of a phenomenon such as a learning disability, others use the term to label every learning problem
Learning Disabilities are often Confused with Learning Difficulties
Myth: "It's not a Learning Disability,
he's just Lazy!"
Fact: Students with LD usually have to spend more time completing assignments assignments. This extended effort can often lead to difficulties in completing assignments on time and maintaining course requirements.
Recent research indicates neurological differences in the brain structure and function for people who have learning disabilities.
· Getting information into the brain
· Making sense of this information
· Storing and later retrieving this
· Getting this information back out
Students with LD can struggle with many aspects of learning and social functioning due to difficulties...
Common Areas of Need
ability to sustain attention.
Receptive Language Skills (Listening, Reading, Language Processing)
Language processing skills (thinking, conceptualizing, integrating)
Expressive language skills (talking, spelling, writing)
Learning Disabilities are complicated
However helping is not...
Teachers who believed they were responsible for all students irrespective of their disability interacted with all their students more, and at higher levels of cognitive engagement as opposed to teachers who believed the belief that LD was related to permanent factors within the student that were out of the teachers’ control.
The students in the classrooms with the teachers who felt they had the ability to impact the students had higher self-concepts.
Environment, including the instruction, had a role in the students’ difficulties used more classroom based interventions as opposed to the teachers who believed the problems were within the student, who suggested withdrawal was the ideal solution for students with LD.
Teachers who had more positive attitudes in effect change in students with LD suggested more teacher-based interventions. Negative attitudes are linked to less effective use of strategies.
"When I was in my early years (first through fifth grade) learning disabilities were an unknown entity. Those of us that had these problems were simply viewed as unintelligent, and from my perspective the greatest sadness was that we viewed ourselves the same way."
Dr. Epstein (pioneer in paediatric neurosurgery)
"I was, on the whole, considerably discouraged by my school days. It was not pleasant to feel oneself so completely outclassed and left behind at the beginning of the race."
Sir Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Churchill
Metacognition – Modeling Thinking
Motivation – Tie in interests where ever possible
Study and Test taking Skills Tips
Academic adjustments are determined on identified deficit's. Adjustments ensure equal and fair participation in a learning environment and ensure actual learning is recognized.
Students with LDs are required to meet the same academic standards as their peers.
Myth: "Students with LD who receive computers technology and accommodations have an unfair advantage over other students."
bridging the gap between students with learning disabilities and those without.
alternative way of getting thoughts to paper.
offers students independence.
The confidence level and morale of the students will increase and they will be able to produce an improved quality of work.
The software will help to increase the quality of work and will allow the student to produce more in less time, will put fewer cognitive demands on students with improved stamina.
Barriers to Assistive Technology
Teachers and students who are not trained or require further training on the proper use of the software will find it frustrating.
The additional cognitive load put on the student in terms of understanding the system, visual perceptual skills, auditory skills, problem solving, and use of the various features of the programs, all in addition to their course work places a burden too great for some individuals.
Students may require several training sessions to learn how to use the programs
The emphasis on reading and writing – what is more important and what is being assessed, the mechanics and conventions or the ideas, concepts, and understanding?
Students require teacher support to scaffold learning.
Talking Word Processor
Talking Word Processor
Dragon Naturally Speaking
Voice to text
Writing apps - with talking work processors and word prediction
Commonly Used Assistive Technology