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Human Geography

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Amber Peterson

on 3 May 2010

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Transcript of Human Geography

AP Human
Geography Review Intro to Human Geography Map Terms:
Toponyms: All inhabited places on earth
Site: Specific characteristic of a place
Situation/ Relative Location: A places location in relation to other places.
Coordinate System: System used to pin-point a place.
Distribuition: Spacial arragment of something on the earths surface.
Scale: Ratio between distance on a map and actual distance on earth. Globalization: World is becoming more dependant on a global scale to the extent that smaller scales are becoming less important. It makes the world become a uniform place. Time Space Compression: Reducdes the time it takes to defuse something due to transportaion, communication and resources. Diffusion: The spread of a trend
or idea.

Spacial diffusion: The way goods, ideas, and services travel over space.

Relocation diffusion: The physical movement of people from one place to another.

Expansion diffusion: The snowball process.

Hierarchical diffusion: The idea that trends originate in key cities.

Contagious diffusion: Rapid and wide spread diffusion

Stimulus diffusion: The spread of a principle vs. a specific characteristic. Population Phase 1: High birth rates and
death rates = low growth.
Phase 2: Death rates decrease birth
rates stay high = high growth.
Phase 3: Birth rates drop death rates
stay low = decreasing population.
Phase 4: Birth rates drop very low
death rates stay low = a decline in
-China Population Pyramids
Population pyramid. The pyramids show the age distribution, by sex, for typical European and African nations. The pyramids have the same total area, so the wide base of the African pyramid reflects the high birth-rate, and its fast-tapering shape indicates the low expectation of life.
Infant Mortality Rate:
Babies death rate during
the first year of life.

Child Mortality: Infants who survive
their first year of life.

Crude birth rate: Number of live births
per year per 1000 people in the population.
Crude death rate: Number of deaths per year per
1000 people in the population.

Natural Increase: The difference between the number of births and the number of deaths.
Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children born to a woman of childbearing age.
Arithmatic Density: The population measurment of the total number of people divided by the total land area.

Physiological Density: The population of the total number of people divided by arable land.

Agricultural Density: The population measurment of total number of farmers divided my arable land. Culture Expansion diffusion: The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process. This can happen in 3 ways:

-Hierarchical diffusion: The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places (Ex: hip-hop/rap music)

-Contagious diffusion: The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population. (Ex: ideas placed on the internet)

-Stimulus diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex: PC & Apple competition, p40)
Popular Culture Folk Culture Popular culture is constantly changing elements through mass production and mass media. Folk Culture is unchanging, traditional elements usually found in isolated areas. Acculturation: Process of adopting only certain customs that will be to their advantage

Assimilation: Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture
Folk Culture diffuses with:
Relocation Diffusion, and entire group moving together. Ex: The amish moving to Colorado. Regions: Hollywood, London, New York, Toykyo Regions: Dixie, Amish, India ________________ Core-Domain-Sphere Model: The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest. Culture Hearth: nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply. Culture Trait: single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks of the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior. Possiblism: The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. |
| Migration Practice:
http://quizlet.com/488486/scatter/ Practice:
http://quizlet.com/1111427/scatter/ Agriculture Religion Extensive subsistence agriculture:

**Shifting Cultivation: Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time.

**Nomadic herding: Based on herding domesticated animals
Effect the way that some in the world to live and were they fall in demographic transition
Crop Rotation: The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. First agricultural revolution: Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals.
Second Agricultural Revolution: Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. Started in United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Denmark, especially with the Enclosure Act, which consolidated land in Great Britain. Potatoes and corn diffused from America’s to Europe, and other resources followed from colonial possessions to Europe.

Green Revolution: Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population. Political Geography Human Geography:
The Spatial analysis of Human
population, its cultures, activities,
and landscapes. GPS: Satellite based system
for determining the absolute
location of geograpghic features
or places Remote Sensing: A methoud of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant form the area or object of study. GIS: A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user. Latitude: An imaginery line running parallel to the equator that is used to measure distance and degrees north or south from the equator. Longitude: An imaginary line circling the earth and running through the poles. Map Projections: Mercator: Toponym: A place name. -Themes (Stewart’s classification): Descriptive, Associative, Commemorative, Commendatory, Incidents, Folk Culture, Manufactured, Mistakes, Shift Names
-Toponyms have become commodities; FedEx Field, Coors Field

-Site: The internal physical attributes of a place.
-Situation: The external locational attributes of a place. Types of Regions:
Formal Region: A type of region marked by a central degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena.
Functional Region: A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur with it.
Perceptual Region: A region that only exists as an idea and not physically demarcated entity. Push Factor: Negative conditions that induse people to leave their abode and migrate to a new location.
Pull Factor: Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locations. Internal Migration: Human movement within a nation state.
Internations Migration: Human movement involving movement across international boundaries. Migrant Labor: A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers world wide who cross international boarders in search of employment. Refguees: People who have fled their country because of political persecution and seek asylum in another country. Ravenstein's Theory:
1. Every migration flow generates a counter migration.
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance.
3. Migrants who move longer distances choose big city destinations.
4. Urban residants are less likely to migrate.
5. Families are less likely to make internations moves than younger adults. Immigrant: People who migrate into a country.
Emigrants: People who migrate out of a country. Placelessnesss: The loss of uniqueness of a place in a cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next. Commercial Agriculture: Large scale farming and raching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory type labor forces, and the latest technology. Agribusiness: General term for the buisnesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agriculture industry. Von Thunen Model: A model that explains the location of agriculture activities in a commercial, profit making economy. A process of spatial competetion allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market place, with profit earning capability the determining force and how far a crop locates from the market. Language Language: Set of mutually intelligible sounds and symbols that are used for communication Significance in culture: Shared language makes people in a culture visible to each other and the rest of the world. It binds cultural identity. Our thoughts, expressions, and dreams are articulated in our native language. They reflect the way people perceive their world. Some use language as a weapon in cultural conflict (people leading “Only English” policies in America stamping out Spanish) Standard Language: published, widely distributed, purposefully taught. Dialect: Variant of a standard language along regional or ethnic lines (Southern dialect “y’all” New England dialect “pahk the cah”) Isogloss: Geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs (Pop vs. Soda vs. Coke) Mutual intelligibility: two people can understand each other when speaking (Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese Chinese can’t understand each other because the spoken dialects aren’t mutually intelligible) Language Classification
-Language family
Example: Proto-Indo-European; Proto-Germanic; Western Germanic; English; Southern
Sound Shift: slight change in a word across languages Language Divergence: lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language breaks language into dialects, possibly become new languages (Spanish and Portuguese) Language Convergence: two languages collapsing into one Hearths of Language Subfamilies
Romance: France, Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal.
Germanic: England, Germany, Norway, Sweden.
Slavic: Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria.
Africa Case Study: Nigeria 400 languages Lingua Franca: language used among speakers of different languages for purposes of trade and commerce.
First widely known lingua franca: Frankish
Examples: Arabic (during expansion of Islam), English (during colonialism)
**English Standard language of international business and travel
Pidgin Language: People speaking two or more languages combine parts of their languages in a simplified structure and vocabulary
-Creole language: pidgin language that has become more complex and has become the native language of a people
Religion: System of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities Secularism: Morals should be structured around life on Earth, not because there may or may not be a higher deity; France First monotheistic religion: Zoroastrianism (Southwest Asia) Universalizing religions: Actively seek converts, view themselves as offering universal appropriateness and appeal/only means of salvation (Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) vs. Ethnic Religion: Adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought (traditional religions in Africa and South America, Judaism) FROM THE HEARTH OF SOUTH ASIA:
-Hinduism: 3rd after Christianity and Islam as a world religion; Indus River Valley; many gods, Brahman; Vedas = sacred texts; karma, reincarnation, caste system; spread eastward
-Buddhism: Splintered from Hinduism; founded by Prince Siddhartha (spoke out against caste system); spread in all directions (majority of Japanese observe Buddhism and Shintoism)
-Taoism: Lao Tsu; oneness of humanity and nature; feng shui; beginnings unclear
-Confucianism: Mainly a philosophy of life; spread into Southeast Asia
-Judaism: only 18 million adherents; Reform vs. Orthodox vs. Conservative movements; Diaspora = spatial dispersion of members of any ethnic group
-Christianity: Jesus Christ; largest and most widely dispersed religion in the world (40% of world’s major religions); Relocation diffusion; Eastern Orthodox in former Soviet areas; Roman Catholic in Latin America, Italy, Spain, etc; Protestant in
-Islam: Youngest of major religions; Second largest religion to Christianity and fastest growing; Sunni majority
Shi’ite minority in Iran; conquest to spread the faith early on

Shamanism: community faith in which people follow their religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary; faiths are small and isolated -Religion in the cultural landscape: Pilgrimage, sacred sites

-Religion in political conflicts: Interfaith boundaries, intrafaith boundaries
-Religious fundamentalism: Religious movement to return to the foundations of the faith and influence state policy

-Religious extremism: Religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence
Identity, Race, Gender, Sexuality. Identity: How we make sense of ourselves
-Identify against: Make it clear that we don’t identify with a certain thing
Examples across scales:
Local- members of community, leaders of organizations
Regional- Southerners, Yankees, Oregonian
National- American, college students
Global- Western, educated, wealthy, free
Race: Constructed identity; categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics social and political constructions based on ideas that some biological differences are more important than others; A LABEL Ethnicity: Affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture; YOUR OWN AFFILIATION/PERCEPTION Sense of Place: State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
Example: People in South Asia identify with their respective countries (Pakistan vs. India); in Fairfax, Virginia, all South Asians including Pakistanis and Indians live without animosity, all identifying with the region of South Asia
-State: politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government; must be recognized as a state by other states
-Nearly every state in the world is a multinational state

-Territoriality: the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area
-Key in construction of social and political spaces

-Sovereignty: having control over a territory, politically and militarily (closely tied to territoriality) The European state idea deserves particular attention because it most influenced the development of the modern state system
-Peace of Westphalia marks the beginning of the European state system Early on, mercantilism led to the accumulation of wealth through plunder, colonization, and the protection of home industries and foreign markets
-Marked a change where territory defined society rather than society defining territory Nation: a culturally defined group of people with a shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals.
-Many nations are multistate nations.
-Stateless nations: Palestinians, *Kurds.
Nation-state: politically organized area in which a nation and a state occupy the same space.
-Stronger loyalty in a nation than in a state
Nation-state diffused through colonialism along with capitalism World-systems theory: World economy has one market and a global division of labor; Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy; The world economy has a three-tier structure (Core, semi-periphery, periphery)
Centripetal force: unify people
Centrifugal force: divides people Federal government system: organizing state territory into regions, substates, provinces or cantons (Strong federal = regions have more control; Weak federal = higher government has more control)
-Example: Nigeria Shari’a laws in north, laws not in place elsewhere
Devolution: movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state
-Often stems from nations breaking away from their states
-Divisions in economic wealth in regions spur devolution (example: richer Catalonians in Spain, want to break away from the poorer Southerners who are “dragging them down.”)
-Spaces on the edge of states are most susceptible to devolution because of a feeling of remoteness (a problem for elongated states such as Chile)
Key to spatial organization of government = state’s electoral system
-voting patterns change boundaries (gerrymandering, reapportionment according to population shifts) To establish a boundary:
1)Define the boundary though legal documentation; points of boundary are described
2)Delimit by drawing on a map
3)Demarcate (optional) by physically marking the land
4)Administrate and determine how the boundary will be maintained and how goods and people will cross the boundary
Types of boundaries:
1) Geometric: drawn using a grid system (latitude and longitude or township and range)
2) Physical-political: follow an agreed-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape
Boundary disputes:
1) Definitional: focus on legal language of boundary agreement (changing topographical features, etc.)
2) Locational: focus on delimitation and demarcation of the boundary (vague language interpretation is in dispute)
3) Operational: differences over the way the border should function (migration laws, trading, etc.)
4) Allocational: focuses on resources found on boundary or unclear areas (oil reserves under seafloor where a boundary is, water supplies in rivers, etc.)
-German School of Geopolitics: State resembles a biological organism that follows the birth-growth-decline-death cycle; nourishment is equal to acquirement of territories
-British/American School of Geopolitics: *Mackinder’s Heartland Theory!* Land-based power, not a sea power, would ultimately rule the world because of rich resources and the “pivot area”/”heartland” from Eastern Europe to Eastern Siberia theory received credit during rise of the Soviet Union Geopolitical World Order: temporary periods of stability in how politics are conducted at the global scale Unilateralism: the new geopolitical world order; U.S. is in a position of dominance and allies of the U.S. follow, rather than joining in the decision-making process Supranational Organization: a separate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and pursuit of shared goals.
-Beginnings of supranational organizations are traced back to the beginning of the League of Nations, which turned into the United Nations after World War II (now has 191 member states). Regional supranational organizations also exist (Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg) *European Union is a supranational organization trying to create a single currency for all members, using the euro*
-Wealthy countries must lend to poor ones
-Some want to see Turkey in the EU; Greeks strongly opposed
Supranationalism’s Effects on the State: Questions if current spatial organization of the world into states is effective or necessary; some (like the EU) have taken on lives of their own, gaining sovereignty as opposed to the states; more difficult for states to control economic relations; state boundaries are breaking down due to increased communication.
Urban Geography Urban morphology: the layout of a city; its physical form and structure *Christaller’s Central Place Theory: determines where cities and towns will be located and their service areas this creates the hexagonal hinterlands (works best in areas in Europe, North America, North China Plain)
1)Surface of the ideal regions would be flat and have no physical barriers
2)Soil fertility same everywhere
3)Population and purchasing power equally distributed
4)Uniform transportation system
5)Good or service can be sold from any point in all directions to a certain distance Sunbelt Phenomenon: the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest
Functional zonation: division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions)- residential, industrial, etc.
Central Business Districk (CBD): concentration of business and commerce in the city’s downtown
Suburbanization: process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized as people and businesses from the city move to these spaces Models:
1)Burgess’s Concentric Zone Model- city grows, land is converted in zones around the outside of the city
2)Hoyt’s Sector Model- city grows outward from the center (focuses on residential segregation and such)
3)Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Model: CBD is losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area
**Many geographers think these models are losing relevance as communications and suburbanization increases**
4) Christaller's Medel: Interlocking model of a hierarchy of settlements and their service areas. Edge cities: result as a shift of focus away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe; characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings
Urban Realm Model: describes the spatial components of the modern metropolis where each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that’s linked together to form the larger metropolitan framework Latin American Cities: Griffin-Ford Model combines radial sectors and concentric zones; commercial spine and CBD remain focus; disamenity sector (poorest parts of cities that, in extreme cases, are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gags and drug lords); slums = barrios or favelas African Cities: Fastest growing cities; sometimes three CBDs, a remnant of a colonial CBD Southeast Asian Cities: Focal point is the old colonial export zone; CBDs present as separate clusters surrounding the export zone
Shantytowns: unplanned developments of crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard; develop around cities; occur as a result of poor people coming to the city for various push or pull factors and housing can’t keep up with the massive inflow
Cities in poorer countries often lack enforceable zoning laws (ways of maintaining space in ways that society would deem culturally and environmentally acceptable); this is why developed cities have more defined zones and poorer cities have mixed land use
Redlining: a discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes in mostly white neighborhoods; got its name from the red lines real estate agents drew on maps
Blockbusting: realtors would solicit white residents of a neighborhood to sell their homes saying that the neighborhood was going downhill because an African American person or family had moved in; a major cause of white flight, the movement of whites from the city and adjacent neighborhoods to the suburbs Commercialization: transforming the central city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike

Gentrification: people buy up and rehabilitate houses in the central cities again, raising housing values and changing neighborhoods

Urban Sprawl: unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land (Henderson, Nevada <3)

New Urbanism: development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs (Seaside, Florida) Arguments against new urbanism: seen as “manufactured” communities; possible feeling of disconnection; lots of privatization of parks, neighborhood centers, shopping districts; helps affluent people make the suburbs more livable; takes away the character of the city; forms exclusionary communities

Gated communities are common in poor countries to provide “protection” for the wealthy; raise housing sales and values

Ethnic neighborhoods in European cities are usually associated with migrants from former colonies (Algerian neighborhoods in France); immigration causes locals to move out Informal economy: economy that isn’t taxed or counted toward a country’s GNI
Alpha Cities: London, Paris, New York, Tokyo, Chicago, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, L.A., Milan, Singapore
Industry Industrial Revolution: The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and manufatoring that resulted from technological inovations and specialization in the late 18th century Europe. Major Industrial Regions:
-United Kingdom
-Italy American Manufatoring Belt:
-New York Secondary Activities: Processing/ transforming natural resources. Site/ Situation Factors:
-raw materials
-market Fordist: A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor.
Post Fordist: World economic system characterized by a more flexable set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been excelerated and disperced around the globe by multi-national companies that shift production, out sourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the 20th century. Development GDI: Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexs.
HDI:Indicator of level of developemt for each country.
-Gross demestic product per capita
-Types of jobs
-Productivity Economic indicators of develpoment:
-Consumer goods
-Raw materials
-Porductivity Primary Sector: The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of material from the earth's surface.
Secondary Sector: The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing transforming and assembling raw material.
Tertiary Sector: The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communication, and utilities, sometimes extented to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment. Models Christaller Model Christaller's Model Mercator Projection Rostow's Model Population Pyramids Von Thunen Morgan Bierbaum, Amber Peterson, and Maddie Burbach
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