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To Kill A Mockingbird- CHAPTER 18-20
Transcript of To Kill A Mockingbird- CHAPTER 18-20
"Our courts have their faults, as does any human institution, but in this country our courts are the great levelers, and in our courts all men are created equal."
"She has committed no crime, she has merely broken a rigid and time-honored code of our society, a code so severe that whoever breaks it is hounded from our midst as unfit to live with. She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance, but I cannot pity her: she is white. She knew full well the enormity of her offense, but because her desires were stronger than the code she was breaking, she persisted in breaking it." (20.43)
Situational Irony involves a discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
Mr. Dolphus Raymond is not what everybody thinks he is.
Raymond is thought to be a drunk person where he actually just drinks Coca cola
A symbol is a person, place or object that stands for something beyond itself.
The paper bag over the coca- cola bottle symbolizes the way that Mr. Raymond is trying to cover up how he lives his life. The way that he hides the identity of his bottle is just like his life; they are both hidden and thought to be something else.
giving a human trait to non-human object
"his pen seemed to wink at me"
Allegory: reference to political or something popular
"integrity of our courts and in the jury system--" (or entire speech)
Allusion and Metaphor
Allusion: figure of speech that makes a reference to a place, person, or something that happened in reality
Metaphor: Comparing two unlike ideas which is indirect.
"... a pauper the equal of a Rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of an Einstein." (274)
Atticus symbolically removes his suit jacket and tie. This act aligns him with the "normal" folk in the community.
To Kill A Mockingbird - Chapters 18-20
Vocabulary: Chapter 18
– calmed or soothed
Mayella gave Attiucs a final terrfied glance and said to Mr.Gilmer...." (241)
something that is dry or lifeless
"Atticus's voice has lost it's comfortableness; he was speaking in his
, detached professional voice."
the work of cleansing usually with soap or water.
"In Maycomb County, it was easy to tell when someone bathed regularly, as opposed to yearly
From Chapter 18-20, the court trials continue, both Mayella and Tom Robinson present their story.
To Kill A Mockingbird
What is Mayella's testimony?
What does Tom Robinson say about his testimony?
What is Dolphus Raymond's actual reason for his odd behavior?
1) Is Mayella like her father or different from him? In what ways?
2) What might be the reason for Mayella's crying in the court?
3) How does Mayella react to Atticus's politeness? Is she used to people being polite?
4) How well does Mr.Gilmer prove Tom's guilt in the eyes of the jury? Can you suggest why these might be different?
"It's an easy question Miss Mayella, so I'll try again. Do you remember him beating you about the face?' Atticus's voice had lost it's comfortableness; he was speaking in his arid, detached professional voice. 'Do you remember him beating you about the face?'
No I don't recollect if he hit me. I mean yes I do, he hit me." (247-248)
"What did your father see in the window, the crime of rape or the best defense to it?" (251)
“I wondered if anybody had ever called her "ma'am," or "Miss Mayella" in her life; probably not, as she took offense to routine courtesy. What on earth was her life like? I soon found out.”(244)
(She asked Tom Robinson to break a dresser for kindling, offering a nickel and when he came in he took advantage of her)
Attcus's cross-examination reveals that she has 7 unhelpful siblings, a drunken father and no friends
Atticus asks her how Tom could have beat up the right side of her face with his crippled left arm
Atticus begs her to admit that there was no rape; that her father beat her up
Mayella bursts into tears and refuses to answer any more questions
It resonates with Greek tradition and history of the Attic
period, a time noted for civility and a push towards democracy, particularly by one of its most prominent statesmen, Solon. Solon advocated more democracy in the court systems of Greece—more equality and justice, concepts Atticus's himself finds sorely lacking in the Southern courtroom.
Why the name Atticus?
Mr. Gilmour using the word "Boy"
"boy" is a disrespectful term
Tom admitted that he helped Mayella because he felt sorry for her
In the deep south in the 1930's, people believed blacks could not feel sorry for a white person
For Tom to admit he felt sorry for Mayella implied that he felt himself to be in a better position than her.
Mr. Gilmer, in order to reduce Tom to a lower level and to put Tom in what Mr. Gilmer and most of the all-white jury would consider "his place", Gilmer uses the word "boy".
This word takes away Tom's identity as a grown man
Boy" was frequently used by ignorant whites when referring to black men for this reason.
Making Sense of Why Dolphus Raymond is Outside of the Court
Mr. Raymond’s presence outside the courtroom is fitting: like Miss Maudie,
He does not belong inside with the rest of the white people, because he does not share their guilt
Mr. Raymond is a harsh realist, and while he shares Jem’s outrage, he is too old to cry
In a way, Mr. Raymond is another illustration of an innocent destroyed by hatred and prejudice: a moral and conscientious man, he is also an unhappy figure, a good man who has turned cynical and lost hope after witnessing too much evil in the world.
“You haven’t seen enough of the world yet...You haven’t even seen this town, but all you gotta do is step back inside the courthouse.
Vocabulary: Chapter 19
Vocabulary: Chapter 20
Point of View
Its older Scout telling the story through a voice of nine year old voice of Scout
Scout often does not understand on what is going around her and needs to be spoon- feed the information
Tom Robinson is brought to the stands
Tom says he usually passes the Ewells house to help Mayella with chores
Tom states that on one specific evening, Mayella called asked him to enter her house in order to fix a broken door
Mayella had then grabbed his legs,hugged him around the waist then asked him to kiss her
Her father then appeared as Tom fled the scene out of fear
Mr.Glimer begins to speak very harshly towards Tom, accusing him of lying
Dill begins to cry
Scout takes him out of the courtroom
As the two walk around, the come across a man with the name of Dolphus Raymond
1. What made Tom visit the Ewell's house in the first place
2. Why does Scout think that Mayells Ewell was "the lonliest person in the world"?
3. In your own words explain Mayella's relationship with her father
4. How does Dill react to this part of the trial? Why is this, in your own opinion?
Mr.Raymond has created an alternate version of himself; a drunken man that lives with the Negroes when in fact he is sober and a clear thinker.
When Atticus loosens his tie and takes his jacket off he is ridding himself of authority and purposely coming down to a man-to-man level with the jury when trying to get them to see that Tom is innocent. He is trying to level himself with the jury so that they don’t see an authoritative figure defending a Negro but a common man standing up for what is right.
Allusion and Metaphor:
At the end of this speech Atticus makes a remark that can be read as an illusion and a metaphor. “... a pauper the equal of a Rockefeller, the stupid man the equal of an Einstein.”
Considered To Be By Maycomb:
Town drunk, because he always carries his drink in a brown paper bag, and tends to sway a bit in his walk
Mr. Raymond is also married to a black woman and has mixed children so evil
Untrustable and "Sinful Man"
Rich and Wealthy Man
After Direct Experience with Dolphus
Bottle hidden in the paper sack with which he is always seen contains only Coca-Cola and not the whiskey that everyone else in town presumes.
Drinks it is so the townspeople "can latch onto a reason" for why he weaves around town--better for the sake of whiskey than for some unexplainable notion.
The children also learn that Raymond sympathizes with Negroes, and he tells Dill that one day he will grow old enough not to
"Cry about the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping to think that they're people, too.
"And so a quiet, respectable, humble Negro who had the unmitigated temerity to 'feel sorry' for a white woman has had to put his word against two white people's.
Having a probability to low to inspire belief
“There's always the possibility, no matter how improbable, that he's innocent."
the time when something ends
“Maycomb had lost no time in getting Mr. Ewell's views on Tom's demise and passing them along through that English Channel of gossip, Miss Stephanie Crawford.”
a tiny or scarcely detectable amount
"The state has not produced one iota of medical evidence to the effect that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place.
Appears to know what "Coke" is but the native children don't know
Ignorant: Does not understand why Raymond will allow people to judge him as an alcoholic and felt sick/bad for Tom Robinson because he was being treated as inhuman
Believes people married that white people married to African Americans is "sinful"
Thinks that Dolphus Raymond is "sinful" and drinks
Dill and Scout discover that Mr.Dolphus Raymond does not carry around alcohol with him, it is coca cola.
Dolphus Raymond gives an explanation as to why he lives his life the way he does.
Dill and Scout return to the courtroom to hear Atticus’s closing remarks
Atticus finishes talking about the evidence and makes a personal appeal to the jury
Evidence suggests that Bob Ewell beat up Mayella instead of Tom because Tom's left hand is crippled and Bob Ewell is left handed which goes along with the fact that Mayella's injuries consisted on the right side of her face
The chapter is ended with Calpurnia walking in to the court room
Like Dill, doesn't understand why Raymond hides his drink
She learns again that people are not always what they appear to be such as Atticus, Boo and now Raymond
Believes in understanding people as an individual not as a race
Courage speech that is speaking against Maycomb thinking
Honest man who believes in the essential goodness of man while accepting the inherent badness/evil of the same
Tom Robinson is one of the "Mockingbirds"
Uses disrespectful words to address Tom
Mr. Gilmour treats Tom Robinson with a rudeness
Uses aversive racism in court
Makes Tom Robsinson say words that make him look guilty
Dill believed that it was unfair to treat anyone that way, Negro or not.
Too young to realize that it was commonplace for Negroes to be treated so disrespectfully.
Mr. Raymond predicted that in a few years he might notice the injustice, but he would be so accustomed to it that he wouldn't cry over it any more.
Observant and "Thinks outside of the box"
Scout thinks their rivalry is strictly a legal one, but Dill notices something else: while Atticus treats all the witnesses, even the Ewells, with respect, Mr. Gilmer treats Tom Robinson with a rudeness and contempt he doesn't show to the white witnesses
Can be a "Mockingbird"
Mayella is trapped by ugliness, poverty, and hatred that surrounds her
Her role as victim—her father beats her and possibly molests her, while she has to deal with her unhelpful siblings
Has lacked kind treatment in her life
Has no friends, and doesn't even know the definition
She is liar to save her own shame and gets Tom Robinson in trouble
walked to the witness stand. As she raised her hand and swore that the evidence she gave would be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help her God, she seemed somehow
, but when she sat facing us in the witness chair she became what she was, a
thick-bodied girl accustomed to strenuous labor
The author uses these words to show how innocent Mayella but complete irony justify sending an innocent man to death
"I got somethin' to say an' then I ain't gonna say no more. That nigger yonder took advantage of me an'
if you fine fancy gentlemen don't wanta do nothin' about it then you're all yellow stinkin' cowards, stinkin' cowards, the lot of you.
Your fancy airs don't come to nothin'—your ma'amin' and Miss Mayellerin' don't come to nothin', Mr. Finch-" Then she burst into real tears.
For men to be big brave heroes, they have to believe that women are helpless timid victims in need of protection or avenging
Proper men have to take Mayella's word over Tom's
Mayella defines man as protects women no matter what the case
"She did something every child has done—she tried to put the evidence of her offense away from her. But in this case she was no child hiding stolen contraband: she struck out at her victim—of necessity she must put him away from her—he must be removed from her presence, from this world. She must destroy the evidence of her offense. What was the evidence of her offense? Tom Robinson, a human being."
Mayella let her followed her desire
She is weak and naive just like a child but she also feels gulity her desire for Tom, which is causing her to commit the crime of perjury
Mood: the way the reader is feeling
The reader feels serious and felt captive or trapped about the tone of the courtroom
"This time John Taylor's gavel came do with bang and as it did overhead lights went on it the courtroom. Darkness had not come but the afternoon sun had left the windows" (259)
The time was not mention the chapters until now shows the serious mood
Tone: the writer's attitude toward the audience
Serious, tense and grave
" He walked up slowly up and down in front of the jury and the jury seemed to be attentive; their heads were up and they followed Atticus's route"
Tense, grim and quiet
" "Judge Taylor instinctively reached for his gavel, but let it fall. The murmur below us died without his help."
Suspense: a feeling of uncertainty and anxiety about the outcome of certain actions
An example of suspense in chapter 19 is when Tom said he felt sorry for Mayella. When he realized what he said he was shifting uncomfortably in his chair. Tom didn't know how everyone was going to react to what he said.
Overall Theme of Chapter 18-20
"To tell the truth takes a lot of courage"
"To truly know a person you must know them individually rather than know by rumors and judgement"
"This time she cried real tears" (Mayella)
"You know the truth, and the truth is: some Negros lie, some Negros are immoral, some Negros men are not be trusted around women... But the truth is that applies to all human races" (Atticus)
"The defendant is not guilty, but somebody in this courtroom is.'" (Atticus)
"That's all I drink most of the times" (Dolphus Raymond)
" ...-evil assumption- that all Negroes lie, that all are basically immoral beings, that all Negroes are not be trusted around our women"
"I need not remind you of their appearance and conduct on the stand-you saw them of or yourself
Mayella's Logic To Win Trial
Tries to make herself be different from her surroundings
"Lonelier than Boo"
"That boy's worked for me eight years and a'n I ain't had a speck o' trouble outta' him" (Link Deas)
"Lonelier than Boo"
She is lonely since she has no adult support for her
Lacks the love that any teenager wants and the only person who appreicated her living was Tom Robinson
Fell in Love with the wrong person
Boo has his own place, Raymond is rich and has a fine family
No one went to the Ewells
Has people around her but don't love her
misdemeanor: a crime less serious than a felony “ it was a misdemeanor and its in the record, Judge.”
expunge: to remove by erasing or crossing out “Judge Taylor told the reporter to expunge anything he had written down”
subtlety: the quality or state of being subtle “ i did not find understand the subtlety of Tom’s predicament
1. What is Dolphus Raymond's way of dealing with society's rumours and do you agree with his coping style?
2.What are Atticus' views on society? How does he deal with the negativity?
"I just want the whole lot of you to know one thing right now. That boy's worked for me eight years an' I ain't had a speck o' trouble outa him. Not a speck.
This quote was significant to chapter 19 because Mr. Link Deas said it in front of the whole courtroom. We know he mean't it because he didn't care what would happen to him if he said it as shown when the judge kicked him out.
"And she asked you to come in and bust up a chiffarobe?"
"Do you deny that you went by the house?"
"No suh- she said she had somethin' for me to do inside the house"
"She says she asked you to bust up a chiffarobe, is that right ?"
"No suh, it ain't."
"Then you say she she's lying boy?"
This passage is when Mr. Gilmer is questioning Tom Robinson on the stand. It is signifacant to the chapter because it shows how Mr. Gilmer is putting words into Tom's mouth that he didn't say.
1. Do you think Mr. Gilmour's questioning is done on a legal basis or hatred towards African American?
2. Why is Tom running away from the incident considered guilty before the eyes of the jury?
3. What was the reasoning behind having Tom Robinson of having him do the oath with his right hand?
"rubber-like left hand"
"Dill here, he's is sick"
Dramatic Irony: when the audience knows something which characters in the play do not
Significant: Shows Scout innocent and ignorance
Simile: compares two unlike objects using like or as
Significant: Can't use left hand since it is injured
"Mr. Finch if you were a nigger like me, you'd be scared too"
This passage is when Tom Robinson tell the reason why he ran since Mr.Ewell Mayella kissing him. Tom Robinson uses empathy to show how he feels through asking Atticus to think what he would do if he was in danger.
THIS CONCLUDES OUR PRESENTATION
1. Scout says that “Mr. Dolphus Raymond was an evil man”. is she right?
2. In most states of the USA people who drink alcohol in public places are required to hide their bottle in a paper bag. Why does Dolphus Raymond hide coca-cola in a bag?
3. What, according to atticus, is the thing that Mayella has done wrong?
4. Explain in your own words, Atticus’s views on peoples being equal.
The African American accused for rape
His left arm dose not work
In jail for for 30 days before trail
Has a family and felt sorry for Mayella
1. Describe Mayella's Character.
2. What is Mayella's relationship with her father?