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AART1920-2012 week 3
Transcript of AART1920-2012 week 3
part 2 :- unpacking the HSC Visual Arts exam
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Cinema and photography have a long history in European art. Both have developed,changed, influenced and led the way for video and other time based forms in the later 20th and 21st century.
Digital media has added to these forms and today is accessible to all through the devices the majority of people have in their pocket every minute of every day.
Art history loves creation myths or stories that locate the founding moment of an art form. Art history also loves firsts. The widely accepted creation story of video art goes something like this:
In 1965 Korean born artist Nam June Paik walked into a New York store and purchased a Sony Portapak from the first US shipment. On his way home he was caught in a traffic jam, he pulled out the camera and made a video recording of the scene from the cab window. Later that night he showed the tape at a café and video art was born.
This story, whether you believe it or not, privileges the popular origin of video art. Paik’s camera was one of the first available on the open market. The artist chose a technology that was soon to become commonly available and he used it to record a commonplace event or experience. He then shared his artwork in an everyday space, in a café rather than an art museum. This tale also highlights the immediacy of video. Paik records the moment and then a short time later screens the artwork. Many art theorists argue that video is an avant-garde medium; used as an alternative to static, museum-based art, it aims to collapse art and life.
Nam June Paik
TV monitors were first presented in 1963, in his solo show titled "Exposition of
Music-Electronic Television" in Germany. In 1964 he moved to New York and continued experiments
with music and video performance. His ground-breaking interactive video-works began in 1965, when
he started experiments with his video camera, with electromagnets, and with color TV.
The wide presence of the media arts in contemporary culture is in no small measure due to the power of Paik's art and ideas.Through television projects, installations, performances, collaborations, development of new artists' tools, writing, and teaching, he has contributed to the creation of a media culture that has expanded the definitions and languages of art making. Paik's life in art grew out of the politics and anti-art movements of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. During this time of societal and cultural change, he pursued a determined quest to combine the expressive capacity and conceptual power of performance with the new technological possibilities associated with the moving image. I will argue that Paik realized the ambition of the cinematic imaginary in avant-garde and independent film by treating film and video as flexible and dynamic multitextual art forms. Using television, as well as the modalities of singlechannel videotape and sculptural/installation formats, he imbued the electronic moving image with new meanings. Paik's investigations into video and television and his key role in transforming the electronic moving image into an artist's medium are part of the history of the media arts.
extract from essay by John Hanhardt,
The More the Better, (1988) Three channel video installation with 1,003 monitors and steel structure; color, sound; approx. 60 ft. high.
Championed for its immediacy from the very beginning, video art was part of the seventies push away from the art object and art as commodity. In Australia and elsewhere, video was used by performance artists and land artists to bear witness to time based process in their shunning of art as product. The video camera was a witness to ephemeral art acts. Australian artist Mike Parr used video as early as 1970. He and fellow artist Peter Kennedy set up an artist run space in Sydney called Inhibodress where performance art, conceptual art and video were regularly shown. The second ever Biennale of Sydney in 1976 also included video art.
The 70s are often referred to as the structuralist period for video art. In its infancy video art was transfixed by its own formal properties and these properties often became the subject or content of video art. Emerging video artists were content to focus on what the world look liked through this new medium.The truth status of video was the subject of a 1970 work by American artist Bruce Nauman. In his work titled Live-Taped Video Corridor Nauman played tricks with the surveillance capacities of video to expose video’s capacity to re-present reality.
Live-Taped Video Corridor, 1970. Wallboard, video camera, two video monitors, videotape player, and videotape, dimensions variable, approximately: (ceiling height) x 384 x 20 inches ([ceiling height] x 975.4 x 50.8 cm). Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York,Panza Collection, Gift 92.4165. © 2012 Bruce Nauman/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Installation view: 1970 Annual Exhibition of Contemporary American Sculpture, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, December 12, 1970 - February 7, 1971.
closed-circuit video technology of contemporary surveillance systems. Related to part of a multi-corridor installation that Nauman constructed earlier in 1970 at the Nicholas Wilder Gallery in Los Angeles, Live-Taped Video Corridor features two stacked television monitors at its far end, both linked to a camera mounted at the corridor's entrance: the top monitor plays live feed from the camera, while the bottom monitor plays pretaped footage of the empty passageway from the identical angle. Walking down the corridor, one views oneself from behind in the top monitor, diminishing in size as one gets closer to it. The camera's wide-angle lens heightens one's disorientation by making the rate of one's movement appear somewhat sped up. Meanwhile, the participant is entirely, and uncannily, absent from the lower monitor. The overall result is an unsettling self-conscious experience of doubling and displacement.
Clown Torture, 1987
Four channel video, sound (two projections, four monitors): 60 min. loop
Tape I/Reel A: "Clown Taking a Shit" (color and sound – 60 minutes)
Tape II/Reel B: "Clown With a Goldfish," "Clown With Water Bucket"
Reel C: "Pete and Repeat"
Reel D: "No, No, No, No (Walter)" (color and sound – 60 minutes)
Reel C: "Pete and Repeat"
Reel D: "No, No, No, No (Walter)"
Reel B: "Clown With Goldfish," "Clown With Water Bucket" (color and sound – 60 minutes)
Reel D: "No, No, No, No (Walter)"
Reel B: “"Clown With a Goldfish," "Clown With Water Bucket"
Reel C: "Pete and Repeat" (color and sound – 60 minutes)
Watson F. Blair Prize, Wilson L. Mead and Twentieth-Century Purchase funds; through prior gift of Joseph Winterbotham; gift of Lannan Foundation, 1997.162
Experimentation remained video arts defining trait until the 1980s when postmodernism killed 70s structuralism. The music video clip emerged in the 80s exerting a massive influence both on popular culture and on the way artists were working with video. VCRs were also readily available on the home market and hence, the initially new and remarkable formal properties of video became familiar and widely accepted. Instead of focusing on the medium itself video artists began to sample from popular culture. The postmodern aesthetic of pastiche and appropriation became commonplace.
As video entered the world of art in the 1960s, artists and critics were mostly concerned with the modernist principle as enunciated and imposed by American art critic and historian Clement Greenberg, for or against which they all had to define themselves. This principle was the one of the medium specificity which, according to Clement Greenberg, was the condition for 'high art', as opposed to 'low art' (popular culture). In other words, to achieve 'high art', one had to define the properties that were inherent to the medium in use. Therefore, for 'video art' to become 'high art', video artists would have to explore the very possibilities offered by the technology of video and electronic, so as to delimit its specific area of competence, and in doing so, differentiate it from cinema.
From the late 80s onwards Swiss born artist Pipilotti Rist has used the video clip format in her art making utilising sharp montage in contrast with slow motion. Rist was a member of an all girl rock band and she often composes and performs her own music in her video installations.
By the 1990s video art had been hijacked by other, newer and sometimes older technologies, rendering it a hybrid medium. Artists began working with video and computer technologies together. Other artists began using video projection to imitate, or even perhaps replace, painting. American artist Tony Oursler is best known for his sculptural video projections where expressive faces are projected over found or constructed objects. Oursler probes the psychological impact of screen culture
This lecture gives a short introduction to video art in contemporary art at its beginning in the middle of the 1960s and in its current state. We will be concerned with experimental video practices that essentially found their place of expression and disclosure in contemporary art museums, galleries and market, as opposed to movie theaters and television programs - i.e., as opposed to the mass media industry. This opposition doesn't imply that video art never attempted to intrude into the mass media industry.
Today it seems that video as a medium is no medium at all. Co-opted by other media it is now intrinsically hybrid. Now in its digital phase, video is more malleable than ever. Today moving images are everywhere…you can broadcast yourself on youtube or make videos on your mobile phone.
malleable easily manipulated
viewed anywhere any time
challenging the museum as the site for display
subject matter - the every day
attractive to a wide and varied audience
Probing the essence of human expression is Viola's domain. The way in which he has done so has made him one of the most prominent American artists. And in drawing on Eastern and Western philosophical sources - from Zen Buddhism to St John of the Cross - he is also one of its most mystical.
film and video becomes increasingly familiar and accessible to large numbers of society. This includes young people in school settings.
hence time based works have become increasingly popular in Art classes and in HSC body of work submissions.
cameras range from the sublime to the ridiculously cheap and simple.
most have a camera on their phone , ipad or other device.
editing can be done with sophisticated software or simple and cheap programs that come with the device or the computer.
cinema practices and cinamatographers are still considered as are visual qualities and relationships seen and considered in other art forms when analysing and considering this form in critical practice.
HSC time based practices
students tend to submit works in one of the following:-
video art in schools
nothing like this
blue and white linework composition
why the long face?