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Anemia

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by

Ty Pratt

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Anemia

Symptoms
Who can be affected?
Types of Anemia
Diagnosis
Anemia
Causes
Prevention
What is Anemia?
Anemia is a condition that occurs when your blood lacks the proper amount of healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin.
Treatements
Interesting facts
Foundations
http://www.dbacanada.com/index.html
Diamond Blackfan Anemia Canada
Adopt a cause... help cure an orphaned blood disorder!

http://www.aamac.ca/
Aplastic Anemia & Myelodysplasia Association of Canada
Education. Support. Research.
A Circulatory Disorder
Hemoglobin -
Hemoglobin is the iron-containing, oxygen-carrier that transports oxygen from the respiratory organs to the rest of the body. The carbon dioxide is then bound to the hemoglobin is transported back to the lungs and unloaded in exchange for oxygen.
There are over 400 types of anemia but they can be divided into these three groups:

Red blood cells lost through bleeding can occur slowly over a long period of time and frequently goes undetected. This chronic bleeding often results in:

Gastrointestinal conditions (ulcers, hemorrhoids, inflammation of the stomach and cancer) due to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Women during thier menstruation and childbirthing years are especially susceptible to this form of Anemia if menstrual bleeding is excessive and if there are multiple pregnancies due to increased blood supply demands.
Anemia Caused by Blood Loss
Anemia Caused by the Destruction of Red Blood Cells
When red blood cells ARE WEAK AND cannot KEEP UP WITH THE DAILY stress of the circulatory systeM they may rupture, causing hemolytic anemia. Hemolytic anemia MAY EXSIST FROM birth or develop later. Known causes of may include:

Inherited conditions (sickle cell anemia OR thalassemia)

Stressors (infections, drugs, snake or spider venom, or SPECIFIC foods)

Toxins from advanced liver or kidney disease

attack by the immune system OR hemolytic disease of the newborn

Vascular grafts, prosthetic heart valves, tumors, severe burns, chemical exposure, severe hypertension, and clotting disorders

In rare cases, THE enlarged spleen can CAPTURE red blood cells and destroy them before theY ARE DONE circulating.
12% of women aged 12-49 are iron deficient
20% of pregnant women in the U.S. have anemia
Anemia is the most common blood condition in the U.S. It affects about 3.5 million Americans.

Women in the childbearing years

Vegans and Vegitarians (Not enough iron intake)

Older adults (due to poor diet and other medical conditions)

Certain forms of anemia are hereditary


Tired

Fatigue easily

Appear pale

Palpitations


Short of breath

Hair loss

Malaise

Worsening of heart problems


If anemia is longstanding (chronic anemia), the body may adjust to the low amount of oxygen and the effected person may not feel different unless the anemia becomes severe.

If the anemia occurs rapidly (acute anemia), the effected peron may experience extreme symptoms quickly.

You can help prevent Iron-Deficiency Anemia by eating foods that contain iron such as:

Liver and red meat 

Seafood (sardines) 

Dried fruits like apricots, prunes, raisins and nuts 

Beans, especially lima beans 

Green leafy vegetables, such as greens, parsley, spinach, and broccoli 

Black strap molasses 

Whole grains 

Iron fortified foods like many breads and cereals (check the label)

Infants need to be eating cereal by 4 to 6 months old and formulas should contain iron.

Any process that interrupts the normal life span of a red blood cell (120 days) can cause anemia. Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow.

Anemia is caused by either the destruction of red blood cells or a decrease in production of red blood cells or hemoglobin.

The Mean Corposcular Volume (MCV) shows the average volume of individual red blood cells.
1. If the MCV is low (less than 80), the anemia is categorized as microcytic anemia (low cell volume).
2. If the MCV is in the normal range (80-100), it is called a normocytic anemia (normal cell volume).
3. If the MCV is high, then it is called a macrocytic anemia (large cell volume).



For anemia in men. hemoglobin level are less than 13.5 gram/100 ml and in women, hemoglobin levels are less than 12.0 gram/100 ml.
The treatments for Anemia vary depending on the type and severity.

First the cause of the anemia should be identified and corrected; Example: Treatment for Anemia caused by blood loss from a stomach ulcer begins with medications to heal the ulcer.

Iron supplements are needed to correct iron deficiency.

In severe anemia blood transfusions may be necessary.

Vitamin B12 injections are necessary if suffering from pernicious anemia or other causes of B12 deficiency.

In certain patients with bone marrow disease or kidney failure, epoetin alfa (Procrit, Epogen) may be used to stimulate bone marrow red blood cell production.

To diagnose Anemia you must take a complete blood cell (CBC) count.

Six component measurements make up a CBC test:
1. Red blood cell (RBC) count
2. Hematocrit
3. Hemoglobin
4. White blood cell (WBC) count
5. Differential blood count (the "diff")
6. Platelet count

Only the first three of these tests are relevant to the diagnosis of anemia. A mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is also reported in a CBC. This is important in distinguishing the causes of anemia.
Automated Analyzer (CBC Analyzer)
The blood is mixed and placed on a rack in the analyzer. This machine has flow cells, photometers and apertures that analyze different elements in the blood. The cell counting component counts the numbers and types of different cells within the blood. The results are printed out or sent to a computer for review.
Percent

14%

4%

9%

9%

392,000


4.1 days

4,852

1,6

Percent of persons with iron deficiency

Children age 1-2 years

Children age 3-5 years

Females age 12-19 years

Females age 20-49 years

Number of hospital discharges with anemia as first-listed diagnosis

Average length of stay

Number of deaths annually from anemia

Deaths per 100,000 population

Date Verified: 4 . 19 . 2013
Anemia Caused by Decreased or Faulty Red Blood Cell Production
In this type of anemia the body may not produce enough blood cells or the blood cells may not function properly due to lack of minerals or vitamins. This kind of anemia includes:


Sickle cell anemia: an inherited disorder that affects African-Americans. Red blood cells become crescent-shaped because of a genetic defect. They break down rapidly, so oxygen does not get to the body's organs.

Iron-deficiency anemia: occurs due to a lack of the mineral iron in the body. Without enough iron, the body cannot produce enough hemoglobin. iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by:
not enough iron in your diet
The metabolic demands during pregnancy and breastfeeding depletes iron stores
Menstruation
Frequent blood donation
Endurance training
Digestive conditions (Crohn's disease or surgical removal of part of the stomach or small intestine)

Vitamin-deficiency anemia: may occur when vitamin B12 and folate are deficient. vitamin deficiency can be caused by include:
Megaloblastic anemia: Vitamin B12 or folate or both are deficient
Pernicious anemia: Poor vitamin B12 absorption caused by, an intestinal parasite infection or HIV
Dietary deficiency: Eating little or no meat or eating too few vegetables

Bone marrow and stem cell problems: may prevent the body from producing enough red blood cells. bone marrow or stem cell problems include:
Aplastic anemia occurs when there's a marked reduction or absence of stem cells. Aplastic anemia can be inherited,happen random, or when the bone marrow is injured
Thalassemia occurs when the red cells can't mature and grow properly. Thalassemia is inherited and affects people from the Mediterranean, Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia. This condition ranges from mild to life-threatening (the most severe form is called Cooley's anemia)
Lead exposure is toxic to the bone marrow and it occurs in adults from work-related exposure and in children who eat paint chips

Sickle cell Anemia
Iron Deficient Anemia
Anemia is the most common disorder of the blood
Most commonly, people with anemia report non-specific symptoms of a feeling of weakness, or fatigue, general malaise and sometimes poor concentration
80 percent of chemotherapy patients have severe anemia
Chronic anemia may result in behavioral disturbances in children as a direct result of impaired neurological development in infants, and reduced scholastic performance in children of school age.
Bibliography
Crowell, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anemia.org/resources/education-kit/anemia-statistics.php

William , S. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/anemia/article.htm

Tamkin, G. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-anemia-basics

The College of Family Physicians of Canada (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cfpc.ca/ProjectAssets/Templates/Resource.aspx?id=3647

Anemia / iron deficiency statistics. (2013, 4 19). Retrieved from http://www.statisticbrain.com/anemia-iron-deficiency-statistics/
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