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The League of Arab States

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Tania Martínez-Raposo Martín

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of The League of Arab States

Mauritania
Libya
Morocco
Algeria
Tunisia
Egypt
Sudan
Somalia
Yemen
Saudi Arabia
Jordan
Oman
Palestine
Iraq
UAS
Qatar
Bahrain
Kuwait
Djibouti
Comoros
The League of Arab States
Martínez-Raposo, Tania
Ramirez Rodríguez, Rafael
Saguar González, Marta
Vazquez Ricciardi, Michelle
Summary
Part I
Part II
History
Members
Objectives and Principles
Structure
Joint Defense Council
Legal Personality
The Traditional Issue:


The Contemporary Issue:
Palestine
The Syrian Crisis
History
Members
Objectives and Principles
Structure
Joint Defense Council
Legal personality
The Traditional Issue:
Palestine
The Contemporary Issue:
The Syrian Crisis
Conclusions
Syria
Background
The area, covers more than 13 million km2

Over 340 million people live in this land

The vast majority of the citizens of the Arab League are Muslims

Is also very rich in natural resources.
The zones
22 independent Arab States

7 original members






15 become a members
The countries
Egypt
Iraq
Jordan
Lebanon
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Yemen
Palestine


Article VIII. respect of the systems of government established in the other member-states.

Article IX. Regards the bilateral cooperation between member-states

Article XIV. Diplomatic privileges and immunities

Article XVIII. Contemplates the withdrawal from the League
The relations' bases
The main goals of the union are collected in the Article II, that says:


The League has as its purpose the strengthening of the relations between the member-states, the coordination of their policies in order to achieve co-operation between them and to safeguard their independence and sovereignty; and a general concern with the affairs and interests of the Arab countries. It has also as its purpose the close cooperation of the member-states, with due regard to the Organization and circumstances of each state, on the following matters:


Economic
Communications
Cultural
Social
Health
Execution of judgments
Article II
The principles of the League (collected in Article II, Article V and Article VI) are,
Independence: The independence, freedom and territory integrity are the basis of the organization and shall be respected between member states.

Sovereignty: It cannot intervene on the sovereignty between the Member States.
Peace and Security: The use of force is prohibited.

Welfare: Cooperation is necessary for safety among members and to welfare.

Union: The union between States is essential for decision-making.

Rule of law: Binding decisions and the principles of the League must be respected by the members.

The League of Arab States has legal personality as it has legal rights and duties. The legal document which governs the organization is the founding Charter, which was signed in Cairo in the Arabic language on March 22, 1945. According to Article XX, the Charter and its annexes “shall be ratified according to the basic laws in force among the High Contracting parties” and “the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretariat-General of the Council and the Charter shall become operative as regards each ratifying state fifteen days after the Secretary-General has received the instruments of ratification from four states”.

The League of Arab States has legal personality as it has legal rights and duties. The legal document which governs the organization is the founding Charter, which was signed in Cairo in the Arabic language on March 22, 1945. According to Article XX, the Charter and its annexes “shall be ratified according to the basic laws in force among the High Contracting parties” and “the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretariat-General of the Council and the Charter shall become operative as regards each ratifying state fifteen days after the Secretary-General has received the instruments of ratification from four states”.

The League of Arab States has legal personality as it has legal rights and duties. The legal document which governs the organization is the founding Charter, which was signed in Cairo in the Arabic language on March 22, 1945. According to Article XX, the Charter and its annexes “shall be ratified according to the basic laws in force among the High Contracting parties” and “the instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretariat-General of the Council and the Charter shall become operative as regards each ratifying state fifteen days after the Secretary-General has received the instruments of ratification from four states”.

Meeting of Arab officials in 1944

The structure that governs the League of Arab States is specified by the Pact of the Arab League.

In the Article III of the same specifies that “the League shall possess a
Council
composed of the representatives of the member-states of the League”.

In the Article IV of the Charter stipulates that “for each of the questions listed in Article II there shall be set up a special committee in which the member-states of the League shall be represented.” This questions listen in Article II are:

Then, based on article IV, the
Committees
that are part of the organization are:

The Article XII announces that “the League shall have a permanent Secretariat-General which shall consist of a Secretary-General, Assistant Secretaries and an appropriate number of officials”. Hence, the following organism introduced is the .

Secretariat General
Dr. Nabil El Araby

Colonialism on the zone
Some countries get the independence
Wars
II World War
The Arab countries that could accede to their independence wanted to create an association that involved and materialized the collective imagine of the identity which defends the interests of the zone.
Of the Arab summit that took place between September 25th and October 7th , the Alexandria Protocol was approved by Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Lebanon.
October 7th 1944
United Kingdom planned a pro-British union of arab countries, that could simplify the confrontations on the zone.

March 22th 1945
Economic
With the base of Alexandria Protocol, the Pact of the League of Arab States was signed one year latter in Cairo with the original members of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen.

Communication
Cultural
Legal
Social
Health
Political
Created
Joint Defense and Economic Co-operation Treaty of 1950

Main Aim
Regulate, integrate and co-ordinate the joint defense of the League


Principal actors
Principle of maintaining peace and security
Article V - Military Anex
Permanent Military Commission
Development of the joint defense plans and its implementations
Article II
“any [act of] armed aggression made against any one or more of them or their armed forces, to be directed against them all.”
Article III
“hold consultations whenever there are reasonable grounds for the belief that the territorial integrity, independence, or security of any one of the parties is threatened”
Palestine, Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, Gaza, and the UN, indirectly we can find other countries who have any interest in the conflict like France, England, USA and the URSS.
Article VI
"Foreign Minister and Defense Ministers of the Contracting States or their representatives"
2/3 majority
Legal repercussion Binding
United Kingdom conquered the territory, until the moment in control of the Ottoman Empire.
The Balfour Declaration to create a state for the Jews
France and the United Kingdom divided the lands with the San Remo Conference and the League of Nations created the British Mandate of Palestine
The Arab Revolt started against the colonial rules of domination and, also, against the mass Jewish migration
Background
1916
1917
1918
1936/1939
UN General Assembly presented the Resolution 181 by that established the state of Israel and the Arab territory of Palestine
Statement by the Arab League upon the Declaration of the State of Israel, in which the member states proclaim the war to the new Jewish state.


Suez war, between the block who supported Israel (France, England and Israel) and the military alliance of Egypt (Egypt, Jordan and Syria)
Associations to resist: the most important was the PLO founded in
Jerusalem with the support of the Arab League at the request of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser
League of Arab State on the Palestine Dilemma
1947
1948
1956
Main mechanism to watch over the peace and security of the region, analyze problems that may arise, develop defense plan and coordinate between the different armed forces of the Contracting States
Principal actors
The Syrian government
The Rebel groups; Supreme Military Council of the Free Syrian Army, SILF, the Jaysh Al-Islam and SIF
United States, Russia and France
League of Arab State and United Nations
Background
March 2011
1964
Protest by the civilian population calling for the release of political prisoners and the reassignment of President Bashar al-Assad
Inspired by Arab Spring
1963
Ba'ath Party came into POWER
Country enters into
Emergency Rule
Government held any and all right of arrest and detention of civilians
Banning of other political parties besides that of the actual president
Oppression of freedom of speech and religion
Torture and arbitrary detention
Hafez al-Assad 1971-200o
Bashar al-Assad 2000-present
League of Arab State on the Syrian Crisis
2011
Suspension of Syria from the League
2/11/2011
Resolution 7438 "Plan of Action"
1. Stop all acts of violence from any source to protect the Syrian citizens.
2. The release of detainees because of current events.
3. Evacuation of cities and neighborhoods of all armed manifestations.
4. Open the way for organizations of the League of Arab States on the Arab and the international media to move freely in all parts of Syria for a fact situations and to monitor what is going on from the events
16/11/2011
Resolution 7439 -7441
27/11/2011
Resolution 7442
2/12/2011
Syrian accepts the Observe Mission
24/12/2011
Observer Mission landed in Damascus
2012
Problem increases
22/01/2012
Meeting Council - Resolution 7444
Saudi Arabia withdraws from mission
24/01/2012
Gulf States withdraw from mission
28/01/2012
League halts Observer Mission
Given the critical deterioration of the situation in Syria and the continued use of violence... it has been decided to immediately stop the work of the Arab League's mission to Syria,"
September 2013
Resolution urging international
action to end the conflict
Attempts to regulate the security and development of the region
Supporter of international cooperation and regional integration
Manages to remain important and effective
Conclusion
Hinders the technical and human development not only of the country but also of the area.
League has found a roadblock to the power it has in the region thus seeking help from those that have a more universal authority on top of the right kind of mechanism and infrastructure to solve the problem
Uncontrollable issue
Yom Kippur, Egypt and Syria try to recover the territories lost in the Six Day War
Accords of Camp David: Egypt suspended
In the wake of this actions the Arab League decide to suspend
Egypt, is that this country call for first time an emergence reunion in the Security Council of the UN to analyzes the civil slaughterthe during the war of Lebanon
Egypt called for a second time a meeting to restore the peace during the First Intifada, in where the most affected were the Palestinians
1973
1979
1982
1988
2001
2005
2012
Egypt called again during The Second Intifada
Egypt claimed review the actions of Israel and Palestine
Egypt want review the magnitude of the attacks made by Israel against Gaza and analyzes the crisis that these provoked.
Now the Arab League becomes aware that is necessary the integration and the participation of all their members to obtain their goals, because if they separates one of his original members, the organization lose any credibility and international power - and more if the reason is the search for maintaining of the peace with other actors-, therefore it may begin to be showed the absence of the participation of his members, who may see it as a weak organization without reason for existence.
Conclusions
For that reason the organization starts to change their logistic form to reflect their interests which needs the cooperation of all the parts that are involved in some senses or another in different conflicts, which affect and stop the progress of the area.
Full transcript