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Transcript of AS ICT
Continuous process control This refers to processes that appear to be unending, for example maintaining of temperature in a confined area. A refrigeration plant where it is necessary to maintain a constant low temperature uses continuous process control. Other examples include the refining process of petroleum and a paper machine continouos output of paper onto rolls. Another example of continuous processing is a thermostat which controls the temperature. PLC (programmable logic controller) : is a computer that is used for a single purpose. It is able to accept analogue and digital inputs, and a set of logic statements is used to compare the results with the pre-set values.
PID (proportional integral derivative) : this calculates the difference between the input value and the pre-set value. It then causes the PLC to make proportional changes to the output so that the pre-set temperature is eventually reached. PLC and PID This processes specific quantities of raw materials to be combined. Batch processes are generally used to produce a relatively low to intermediate quantity of product per year (a few pounds to millions of pounds). Batch processing is used in:
Wages Batch Process Conrol Found in many manufacturing, motion and packaging applications. Robotic assembly, such as that found in automotive production, can be characterized as discrete process control. An example of this is metal stamping on products Discrete Process Control Computer control is used in two mafor medical applications - intensive care and surgery - but both still require human intervention.
Patients in intensive care are monitored through the use of sensors. The sencors feed back a variety of body functions to the computer such as:
The computer is preset with the normal range of values and is constantly comparing the data fed back by the sensors to these pre-set values. If any of the body function data falls outside the pre-set range the computer sounds an alarm. However, such a system as we understand it, since there has to be human intervention. Medical Applications Robotic surgery is an extension of keyhole surgery that involves using robotic arms and cameras inside the patients body. the robotics arm and cameras are alot smaller than normal. the end effector is usually a scalpel Surgery Computer controlled robots are used in various manufacturing industries, including the manufacture of cars. Most robots are controlled by the use of actuators in the form of electronic motors. A direct current(DC) motor spins quickly if an electric current is applied to it, and it spins in the reverse direction if the current is made to flow in the other direction. A more popular type of motor for robotic use is a stepper motor. This does not spin freely like a dc motor, but moves in minute steps and so is easier to control by a computer. The industrial robots used in car manufacturing are generally robot arms rather than a complete robot. the most common type of robot arm consists of seven metallic sections with six joints, each joint being controlled by seperate motor. Car Manufacture The computer controls the movement so that, using different end effectors, a variety of jobs can be carried out. End effectors are the devices attached to the end of a robot arm. A common one is a `gripper´, which acts like a hand; for example, it can be used to hold (grip) a part of the car body, so that the robot arm can move it to somewhere else. The types of end effector used in manufacturing are:
cameras to inspect work
welding guns to weld parts of the car body together
grippers to pick up parts and place them somewhere else - grippers often have built in pressure sensors that tell the computer how hard the robot is gripping a particular object, so that the robot does not drop or break whatever it is carrying.
vacuum cups to pick up parts without obstructing the sides or bottom, for example windscreens or small complex car parts
drills to make holes in the car body
screwdrivers/spanners/riveters to place and tighten screws, nuts bolts and rivets.
spray guns to paint the car body
sanders/polishers/finishers to produce a shiny finish after painting End effectors Teleworking is another name for working at home. It means that some work or all of the work is done at home using modern technology.
In order to work from home, a teleworker needs:
a PC with internet access
access to email
a fax machine
a landline phone
a mobile phone
Most managers needing to make the decision as to whether an employee should be allowed to work from home consider the following types of employment to be very suitable:
professional services such as tax advice, legal advice and financial advice
proofreading of documents and books
translation of documents
technical and customer support
telesales and marketing
The manager may well want answers to questions like: What type of person are they? Could they work well on their own? The employee would have to:
be able to manage their time well
be well motivated
have good communication skills
have good self-discipline
have good time management
Other important decisions that managers may need to take are based on the provision of support and the technology involved. Good managers want to include their teleworkers in various activities that their office based colleagues experience, such as:
training sessions at head office
company outings ICT In Working Practices Correspondents send their stories via email to the editorial office
Journalists would type up their story using word and used photo from a digital camera by uploading it to the laptop.
If it is local story they can send their story using a home internet connection.
If they are not able to use home internet they can send it using a mobile phone or by logging in into a internet hotspot.
The article is only been finished when the mistakes have been removed and it has been proofread.
There is a liaison between the graphics designer and a graphics director before being printed.
Typesetting is the setting of the layout or the typed page
Kerning is the space between individual letters
The leading is the space between lines on a page also has to be accurately designed.
Although all the necessary feature are all included in desktop publishing packages the difference between a amateur and a pro is quite considerable.
Once the page has been sent out to the editor's requirements, it can be sent for plate making.
The page is then printed and the image of the page in the newspaper is burned onto light-sensitive film.Then the film is place in a large fax machine that is used to send the film to a print plant.
Some publishers have several print plants and complete newspaper, in digital form, is sent up to a satellite and then transmited by the satellite to print plants
An alternative for smaller publishers is to transmit the newspaper in digital form using a wan
Images from negatives are transferred to printing plates in much the same way as photographs which are developed.
Ultraviolet light is allowed to pass through the film negatives to expose the print plate.
A chemical reaction occurs that allows the light-sensitive coating on the aluminium plate
The press consists of three rollers or cylinders.
The most common way of printing newspapers is web offset lithography
A plate with ink on it is directed into the blanket cylinder. By Luca Massironi AS ICT A video conference is the electronic equivalent to a conventional conference usually held in a conference suite,sometimes called a face to face conference. The essential components of a video conference are:
a standard pc with mouse and keyboard
a network connection (a broadband speed of at least a few hundred Mbits per seconds is essential to ensure that the quality of the transmission is sufficient)
video conferencing software
Members of the conference need to log on to the system or internet and when the software is running they can normally see and hear all the delegates involved. They communicate by speaking into the microphone and looking at the webcam, which is normally fixed to the top of the monitor. Conference members are able to examine documents using normal software, discuss modifications or additions to the documents and physically make the amendments Videoconferencing Time management is about using the most efficient way to complete tasks or projects. this need to be done in acceptable amount of time but with the highest quantity. Also it applies to all businesses e.g. the manufacturer of products, writing documents and providing services and making decisions. Sometimes outside experts may be brought in or the organization may employ people as full time working time management, they could examine good practice as well as attending courses and gaining qualifications in this area. Uses of ICT in Management Identifying long and short term targets - setting up a ICT department there would be short and long term targets for example hardware, software, cables, servers, etc. would all be short term, whereas , some of the long term targets would be training the staff which would include the teachers and admin.
Priorotising - is hugely important when setting targets which are independent of each other
Planning - thorough planning of any project is very beneficial and any possible hurdles or potential difficulties would be rooted out with discussion and planning
Decision making- is an important aspect so you can save time
Use of ICT - organization benefit through the use of software and communication devices such as faxes, telephone and even express delivery of conventional mail Features of time management There are a number of software products that act as a stopwatch device. They allow users to click on a specific task and the computer periodically reminds the user how long they have been working on that task. Some tasks can be carried out at the same time as others (parallel), Some must be done and completed before others can be thought about (sequential). Arranging work load This method of project management is not just specific to building any more, its applied in many types of projects. It involves making a critical path analysis to find the optimum time to be spent on individual tasks.
The critical path is the order in which tasks must be completed so that the entire project is completed on time. Construction Project Management Requirement Specification A database or database system is a collection of related data. In its simplest form a database consists of a collection of records and fields. Each record contains the set of fields, each of which contains one piece of information.
A database management system (DBMS) is, as its name suggests, the software used to manage a database system. It manages:
* the structure of the individual data files
* the relationships between data items and between data files
* how the data is interrogated
* the properties of the database, i.e. ensuring that all queries, updating and amendments to structure are processed reliability In a sequential file, records are stored one after the other, in the order in which they were added to the storage medium, usually magnetic tape. To read data from or write data to tape, sequential files must be used.
There are two ways that records can be arranged in a sequential file. One way is to have the records in some sort of order using a key field. A key field is one which is unique to every record, i.e. every record has a different value in that field. This is called ordered sequential. Alternatively, the records might be arranged with no thought given to their order so they appear to be unordered. Sequential Files Validation Rule