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BC&H period 1

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Ruben Engelhardt

on 19 October 2014

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Transcript of BC&H period 1

House of Tudor
Edward VI
r. 1547 – 1553
Henry VIII
r. 1509 – 1547
Bloody Mary (I)
r. 1553 – 1558
Elizabeth I
r. 1558 – 1603
Margaret
Henry's sister
married King James IV of Scotland
King James V
of Scotland
Mary, Queen of Scots
House of Stuart
James I
r. 1603 – 1625
Charles I
r. 1625 – 1649
Oliver Cromwell
(LP) 1649 – 1658
Charles II
r. 1660 – 1685
James II
r. 1685 – 1688
Mary II + William of Orange
r. 1689 – 1702
Queen Anne
r. 1702 – 1714
Elizabeth Stuart.
Charles I's sister
Sophia of Hanover

House of Hanover
George I
r. 1714 – 1727
George II
r. 1727 – 1760
George III
r. 1760 – 1820
George IV
r. 1820 – 1830
William IV
r. 1830 – 1837
Victoria
r. 1837 – 1901
Edward
House of Windsor
(Saxe-Coburg & Gotha)

Edward VII
r. 1901 – 1910
George V (Windsor)
r. 1910 – 1936
Edward VIII 1936
r. (326 days, married American)
George VI
r. 1936 – 1952
Elizabeth II
r. 1952 – present
(Next in line: Prince Charles)
British Culture & History
Period one

~ 1500 - 1600
~ 1600 - 1700
~ 1700 - 1900
~ 1900 - now


England during this time:

most people lived in the country
fixed social hierarchy
divide rich and poor
feudal system was in place
less connection to London and "the government"
rebellions & risings
militia (lords' armies)

Start of the "early modern period" - renaissance
The system was slowly changing:

printing press: William Caxton printed the first book in 1485
maps showed the masses what their country looked like - more unity
time of exploration: arts, music, literature, exploration
the court played a great role in developing the above mentioned

Scotland & England are still separate countries. They have a bloody history together.
By Catherine of Aragon
By Anne Boleyn
By Jane Seymour
studied: astronomy, maths, politics, religion, philosophy
engaged with learned men
ran the country in a dictatorial way (beheading of his enemies)
reformation (creating English Catholicism)
six wives (killing some)
Fidei Defensor, title given by the pope in reward for his reaction to Martin luther
1534: Henry Breaks with the Catholic Church (Act of Supremacy)
1539: Henry’s English Bible

- monastries looted on his order, possessions fell to state (henry)
He divorces Catherine of Aragon and marries Anne Boleyn 2nd wife: she produces 1 heir: Elizabeth. In the end, Anne Boleyn was beheaded
Henry marries Jane Seymour 3rd wife: Jane Seymour: 1 heir: Edward

Opened the door to more protestantism from Europe.
1549: introduced the book of common prayer.
MADE BY:
Jane Seymour
Succeeded after Henry's death but died 6 years later. Named Lady Jane Grey as his heir who reigned for 9 days - she was beheaded by Mary I (Mary took over).
ascended the throne after Edward. Was called bloody Mary because she executed protestants.
Left no male heirs so Elizabeth became queen.
MADE BY:
Catherine of Aragon
raised as a catholic
bloody Mary
MADE BY:
Anne Boleyn
Sometimes seen as an illegitimate monarch (Anne Boleyn was an illegal wife of Henry).
Mary queen of Scots was her niece and many wanted her to be queen instead of Elizabeth. Therefore she beheaded Mary queen of Scots in 1587.
1588: Phillips II of Spain sends the Spanish armada to England
Elizabeth held a speech at Tilbury
the armada is defeated (partly due to the bad weather)






She left no children thus ending the Tudor dynasty. James VI (son of Mary of Scots) became king of Scotland and England - he was called James I. ''birth of Britain" not the countries but they now shared the head of state!
Because Elizabeth was allegedly illegitimate Mary posed a threat to her niece. She also had a claim on the throne.

Mary married the dauphin (crown prince) of France, who would later become king. He only ruled for a short while. After his death she returned to Scotland, where she was Queen, but through her marriages and other affairs she was exiled. She pleaded with Elizabeth for refuge in England

In 1587 she was beheaded
her son James I became king of England and Scotland after Elizabeth's heirless death
Civil war & Revolution
Important terms:

the Puritans
the Scottish Presbyterian Church
the Cavaliers and Roundheads
the New Model Army (parliament
the Commonwealth (British Isles + colonies)
the Interregnum period
the Whigs and the Tories
the Jacobites

England & Scotland now share their monarch as James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England. Ireland was seen as a sort of Colony instead of an equal to Wales
Flourishing of the arts (also the case under Elizabeth)
Publication of King James Bible (1611)
Introduction of classicism in architecture (Indigo Jones)
Jacobean Period: Relatively peaceful
New insights in science are made
Colonies in the West Indies and Americas
5 November 1605: the gunpowder plot
some Catholics, most famously Guy Fawkes, plotted to blow up James I, the first of the Stuart kings of England. The story is remembered each November 5th when ‘Guys’ are burned in a celebration known as "Bonfire Night".
James saw himself as a divine ruler. Did not listen to parliament who were seeking more and more power. The king needed parliament to raise taxes.
Also thought himself a divine ruler: problems with parliament
Married a catholic, which weakened his position as the head of the church
1637: Charles imposes his prayer book in Scotland - they rebelled
1640: Charles sends an Army to Scotland but he is beaten

Parliament wants to limit the powers of the king, because Charles I assembled an army of Catholic Irish to fight against the Scots

1642: Charles invades parliament unsuccessfully, civil war breaks out
the Puritans felt like they didn't have the freedom to exercise their religion freely in England, therefore they left for the New World
Civil war:



Royalists (Cavaliers) backing the King

support from: Ireland, Wales, Southwest
Assembled armies of the allies
Parlementarians (Roundheads)

support from: London, Southeast, Scotland
New Model Army (Cromwell & Fairfax)
VS


1640 Charles I beaten by Scots
1642 Charles I invades parliament
1645 Battle of Naseby (won by the Roundheads)
1648 Cromwell purges parliament
1649 Charles I beheaded at Banqueting House
1649 Start of Puritan Republic
1645: Charles I is defeated at Naseby he surrendered to the scots, they bring him to parliament as the ‘loser’ of the civil War. No head of state in England anymore.
Oliver Cromwell more or less leader of the country. Charles contacted the Scots: ‘If you support me, you get your own church’. The Scots agreed, but were beaten by Cromwell. By now, Cromwell was so powerful that he could get rid of everyone. He charged Charles with treason. Charles was executed at the Banqueting house
united the nation further
butcher of the Irish, subjected them
made sure protestantism would rule England
lord protector of the republic
controversial but brilliant tactician
After his death Cromwell's son took over but he couldn't manage. The people were fed up with the republic and asked Charles II to become king (restoration).
The interregnum period
restoration: empirical science bloomed
theatres etc. reopened
worked together with parliament (rules)
rules in place: no longer arrest people or pass taxes without parliament
1666: great fire of London, st. Paul's burned down - rebuilt in 1675-1710 (symbol of tenacity) Christopher Wren
1678: rumours about a (catholic) popish plot against Charles II

left no heir so the throne went to his brother James II
converted to Catholicism before ascending to the throne (however, his two daughters, Mary and Anne, remained Protestant); when his son James was born, England feared a permanent return to Catholicism and several nobles invited William of Orange to invade; King James II attempted to flee and was declared to have abdicated.
(Jacobites didn't agree)
Whigs: exclude James II, he is too Catholic
(early liberals)
opinion:
opinion:
Tories: keep the king (rightful monarch)
(early conservatives)
lands at Torbay with an army in 1688. Was asked by parliament to invade. His wife was daughter of James II but she died in 1694.


Parliament meets yearly
Parliament is elected regularly
First form of cabinet & ministers: advisors to the king
1688: the glorious revolution
1689: the bill of rights, signed by them
1690: James II tries to recapture the throne: Battle of the Boyne.
William wins (protestantism in Ireland)
William reigned jointly with his wife (and cousin) and after her death (1694) he continued to rule by himself.
William and Mary II had no children so Anne became queen
during her reign, a law was passed excluding any Catholics from ever inheriting the throne.
last of the Stuarts
first truly British monarch ever
26 March 1707: acts of union Scotland & England become 1 country (symbolic date for ‘independence’ )

English Parliament became British Parliament in London.
England doesn’t have a parliament anymore, Scotland, Wales and Ireland do.
Mary of Orange


Daughter of Charles I. Married the Dutch soverign, Prince William II of Orange.
Their son William III (stadholder) would later marry his own cousin, Mary II and gain the throne.
England & Scotland were now unified due to the act of unions 1707. Ireland was not included in the union. It remained a separate kingdom and indeed was subordinate to Great Britain until 1784.
During his reign the power of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of a cabinet government led by a prime minister.
The bill of rights
parliament decides on succession
Catholics cannot reign
parliament meets regularly
freedom of speech in parliament
laws are made by parliament
taxes are raised by parliament
parliament controls the army
religious tolerance towards protestants
18th century politics:

industrial revolution (pt.1)
age of reason, rationality

Sir Robert Walpole: First PM (1721-1742), Whig Leader.
William Pitt the Elder: Whig PM (1766-1768) (Pittsburgh), Led Britain in the seven years’ war with France.
William Pitt the Younger: Tory(?) PM (1783-1801) (1803-06).
innovations that prepared for industrialization:
new weave techniques, mechanization, steam power, improved infrastructure

18th century art: Augustanism
Characterized by: essay writing and Journalism, (political) satire, empiricist philosophy, rise of the novel, rise of the magazine.

First Dictionary (Dr. Johnson) 1755. William Hogarth: First ‘comic strip book’, political cartoons (Gin Lane), society critic
Jacobite risings:
James III, son of James II who was pushed from the throne by William III and Mary II. James III was a Stuart, he tried to reclaim the throne in 1715 (nickname: The Old Pretender)


Jacobite Risings (second try)
: Bonnie Prince Charlie, son of James III tried again in 1745 (nickname: The Young Pretender).After that, the Stuarts stopped trying.

Jacobean era:
was when James I was king 1603-1625
Jacobites:
are James II and the Stuarts attempt to get the throne back. The Jacobites found support in Scotland and the clans because the Stuarts were originally Scottish
American Colonies:

The Americas were founded for political reasons by the Puritans (they couldn’t freely practise their beliefs in England, so they left).

To keep the plantations going: Slavery. Trade routes had to be protected by the navy, so a strong naval force was needed. 7 Year War with France: also fought in the Colonies (French had supported Jacobite risings). The war cost Britain a lot but the Americans had to pay for that. They had no representation in the parliament in London: “No Taxation without Representation. British raised taxes on tea and paper. The Americans rebelled.

16 December 1773: Boston Tea Party.
Americans threw the tea (with the high taxes) into the sea. The British reacted violently, this was the beginning of the American war of Independence. America-supporting countries fought against the British in other colonies

4 July 1776: Declaration of Independence


Empire in the East:

Founded for trade and to secure the trade routes to the east.

EIC (East Indian Company) ruled in the name of Parliament

First didn’t want to control the countries politically
Later they did to protect the lands from competitors (like France). If they controlled it politically they could use armies to protect.

Colonies in a pattern that depended on each other: Empire building (The colonies on the route to the east were safe havens on the way).

The British didn't have to fight the Scots anymore, they became a unity. The Scots & the English pooled their resources and saw themselves as the no.1 protestant country in the world, wanted to spread Protestantism and Britishness.

Empire building made the British what they are: “If you never get confronted with other cultures, you don’t need to reflect on who you are yourself.”
the longest reigning king in Britain's history; was king during the American and French revolutions; suffered from madness in his later years.
1789: French revolution
, later France is ruled by Napoleon, who is exactly the despotic monarch that the British tend to revolt against (Charles I etc.)
Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar (Lord Horatio Nelson). Battle of Waterloo (Duke of
Wellington). End of Napoleonic Wars:
Congress of Vienna 1815:
Britain given former French colonies enlarging the empire
Act of Union 1800:
it was feared that the Irish would revolt just like the French had done in their revolution. Thus the Irish were given positions in Parliament (they had to be protestant however. the Union Jack is now complete!

was regent during his father's illness; his only daughter, Charlotte, died giving birth to a stillborn and therefore he had no heir. The crown went to his brother William IV.
had two daughters but both died as infants; the throne therefore passed to his brother Edward's daughter Victoria.


Died 6 days before George III.
Married prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha; she was the last monarch of the House of Hanover and the longest reigning monarch in British history; her descendents currently sit on the thrones of Britain, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.
Cameron descends from King William IV and his mistress Dorothea Jordan
1857: Indian mutiny, violently repressed by the British
1854-1856: Crimean war (Russia), Florence Nightingale
1876: Victoria becomes empress of India, beginning of the Raj
1899-1902: boer war (South Africa)


Ruled the biggest empire Britain has ever had.
The time in which she lived is often called the Victorian era.
The Victorian era:
Number of people who were allowed to vote increased in the Victorian period. Even more radical movement; Chartists wanted all to vote, secret ballot and annual elections. Important PM’s:

Benjamin Disraeli (conservatives/tories)
William Gladstone (liberals - replaced whigs as major party in parliament)

Gladstone made law so the state could control education, health and housing. He tried to give the Irish home rule, but was stopped by Disraeli’s party.


Ireland 1840’s: great famine, crops failed (potatoes)

Ireland is still a feudal system
Many people died or fled to the Americas
British government did nothing, ‘they let the Irish die’
Irish Republican Brotherhood started (later IRA)
After the 1880’s Britain was no longer without rivals: Germany was building a strong navy & the United States of America were becoming stronger.
Industrial Revolution (Pt. 2):

Electricity, steam engine/train: Britain had a head start

1851: Great Exhibition
(Crystal Palace in Hyde Park) was a symbol for British superiority.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
was an engineer. He designed the Forth Bridge in Scotland and a Steam Liner.

For the first time more people lived in the cities than in the countryside

Trains developed: commuting, traveling: tourism became accessible for more ‘normal’ people, goods could also be transported all over the country: newspapers could be read everywhere, fashion from London was worn in Scotland. Goods were being sold everywhere so branding became important. Railways helped to unify the country. The industries were all powered by coal mines: child labour, The Black Country, bad working conditions.

Class distinctions became bigger: new middle class evolved (civil service, charity, empire, army, instiutions).
Class cultures and identities developed differently: how people spent their time, what sports they played etc.

Heroes embodying Britishness:


(1)
Sir Robert Clive: Secured India
(2)
General Gordon: last stand in Sudan
(3)
Horatio Nelson: beat the French 1805 (Trafalgar)
(4)
Arthur Wellesley (Wellington): 1815 Waterloo.
The Edwardian period is very short but the Edwardians are the first to see:
The monarchy was still officially named Saxe-Coburg & Gotha.
aeroplanes
cinemas
telephone
see cars
US travel
Run up to WWI:

1904: Britain and France sign the Entente Cordial
(no fighting in the colonies when there is war in Europe).
1907: Triple Entente.
France & England sign treaties with Russia promising each other support during times of war.
Germany signs treaties with Austria-Hungary and Turkey.
1914: Franz-Ferdinand assassinated, the Great war starts.
New technology was used: tanks, bombs, chemical warfare.
The war left Britain in a huge dept. An entire young generation of men was lost.

11 November, remembrance day (poppy day).

Start of WWII:

May 1940:
Winston Churchill becomes PM (Conservatives). He won the leadership of the party just in time before the war really broke loose.
He forms a war cabinet, which includes Labour ministers (Attlee)

Spring 1940:
The British Army is forced to retreat from Dunkirk (north of France). Most of Europe was conquered, Britain stood alone against the Nazi’s

Summer/Autumn 1940: Battle of Britain.
RAF beats Luftwaffe over the Channel

Late 1940-1941: the Blitzkrieg.
London and other important cities are bombed. Most of London is destroyed EXCEPT ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL (symbol for survival of the British). British royals stayed in Buckingham Palace through the war

Posters: ‘Keep Calm and Carry On’ were made in case of an invasion. Those could then be spread among the people. Churchill didn’t only defend Britain, he also defended Britishness. Churchill didn't win the elections after the war. (Attlee, labour)




was king during World War I; changed the name of the British royalty to WINDSOR to distance the family from its German connections.
At the start of WW I, most of the militarists were higher classed men. Because they needed more troops after a lot of casualties lower classes were allowed to join. This emancipated the lower classes!
1917: Russian Revolution
April 1916: Easter Rising in Dublin
1922: first broadcast by the BBC
1924: first labour government
1928: women given the vote. This was because of the fight of the suffragettes (Emily Davidson) who wanted equal rights
April 1916: Easter Rising in Dublin

Home rule for Ireland was passed through Parliament just before the war, but was postponed because of the war.

Some of the Irish refused to wait: Easter Rising. They occupied post offices. This rising was violently stopped by the British Government. This caused a lot of the general public to sympathize with the rebels.

After the war 1918: Sinn Féin (Irish party in parliament) won many seats because of the violence used by Britain.

1916 is seen as a heroic action by the Irish, but Ireland only became independent in the 1930’s.
Edward held sympathies
towards the Nazis.
Denounced the throne to be able to marry Wallis Simpson. She was a divorced American woman.
Became governor of Barbados (far away) so that he would not embarrass the monarchy any further. His brother takes over.
''The stammer king''. He took over after his brother Edward VIII denounced the throne for a woman. He had trouble with speaking, he stuttered a lot.
.......
Fascism in Britain: Oswald Mosley and the BVF

British had always been against totalitarian regimes (Charles I, Napoleon etc.) so no great success, but it did exist.
1956: Suez Crisis.
Suez canal dug in Victorian times. The Egyptians nationalized the canal in 1956, no longer free trade through the canal. The British invaded Egypt with France and Israel. They were told by the Americans not to because they were afraid the Arabic world would choose the side of communism during the cold war

30 January 1972: Bloody Sunday,
14 protesters shot by British solders (again violence)
1973: Britain joins the European Economic Union (to become the EU)

1982: the Falklands war.
The Argentinians took the Falklands, Britain fought back.
1947: India's independence.
The country split up (Pakistan & Bangladesh)
1948: the National Health Service is set up
1949: NATO, the UK is founding member
Commonwealth 1949: nowadays the queen is still head of state in 16 of the 53 member states. She’s also chairwoman of the Commonwealth
1951: the festival of Britain. (100 years after the great exhibition)

The austere 50s
70’s: era of decline: crises

Both Labour & Conservatives couldn’t turn the tide, Britain became the sick man of Europe. There were many strikes by trade unions, Punk (angry) music. End 70’s: Law and Order needed to be restored

1979: General Elections. Margaret Thatcher wins. First woman PM and longest reigning PM

80’s: Thatcherism

Hard line conservative
Economical liberalism
Privatization
Home ownership
Individualism (‘No society’)
Wanted to end the power of the trade unions
Russians nicknamed her ‘The Iron Lady’
Never turn. She stood by her decisions until the end
EU-sceptic

In 1990 she had to resign because she had become ‘too dominant’ (started using royal plural).
She made many enemies in the north by closing factories, mines and community centres.
New Labour

Labour reinvented, leader Tony Blair
He won the elections in 1997
More centre-left programme
No more nationalizing of industries
Made himself popular by calling princess Diana ‘the people’s princess’ after her death in 1997
Peace talks with Northern Ireland 1998
9/11 (2001)
Made himself unpopular by joining George W. Bush in his wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). He was seen as too much a ‘lap dog’ of Bush
Want to be seen as a big nation, spread western ideas, too eager to join America’s war

2010: First coalition government of conservatives and liberal democrats. (‘end of the welfare state’)

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