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Microscopy and Cytology Timeline
Transcript of Microscopy and Cytology Timeline
Cytology, more commonly known as cell biology, studies cells and cell structure. Microscopy is the science of the magnification of objects that cannot be observed with the naked eye.
The very first microscope was invented in 1590. Zacharias Janssen and Han Janssen, two eyeglass manufacturers, made the discovery after experimenting with eyeglass lenses in a tube. Although this design is incredibly simple it was the beginning of all microscopic technologies.
Robert Hooke was one of the first to make breakthrough discoveries in cytology. While analyzing objects through his compound microscope Hooke noticed the structured pores, which are now known as cells, in a think slice of cork. As the cork was made of a once living material he found that all plant materials contained these pore like structures. Hooke released these findings along with his others in a book called Micrographia.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s work was similar to Hooke’s, he also analyzed substances and objects under simple microscopes. However van Leeuwenhoek analyzed living things, he discovered bacteria while looking at a sample of water. He also analyzed other living elements such as saliva, blood and sperm.
The Three Founders of Cell theory
Matthais Jakob Schleiden stated that all plants are made up of cells. He also highlighted the importance of the cell nucleus.
Theodor Schwann concluded, after working with Schleiden, "All living things are composed of cells and cell products.” This can be found in his book called Microscopic Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Plants and Animals.
Rudolf Virchow concluded in an epigram Omnis cellula e cellula. "Every cell originates from another existing cell like it." Virchow observed that new cells are formed from the division of the same type cell. He published this work as his own however it was stolen from another scientist called Robert Remak.
Ernst Abbe, the research director for Zeiss Optical Works, created a mathematical theory called the ‘Abbe Sine Condition’ This mathematical formula allowed for maximum microscopic resolution.
Ernst Ruska, a German physicist, developed the first electron microscope, which allowed scientists to seen magnified images that exceeded any light optical microscope.
Gerd Binnig and Henrich Rohrer develop the scanning tunneling microscope at IBM. The microscope is a non-optical scans objects with a metal tip to produce an atomic three dimensional image.
The Kelvin probe force microscopy was invented. This allows work to be viewed at the atomic or molecular level as it is a non contact version of atomic force microscopy.
Joseph Jackson Lister created the achromatic lens to reduce the chromatic effects of different wavelengths of light.