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Community Informatics-ICT Trends

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Hashini Gunatilake

on 12 May 2017

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Transcript of Community Informatics-ICT Trends

Lanka Government Network (LGN)
Sources: https://www.icta.lk/digital-infrastructure/
No physical hardware and recurring maintenance costs
On demand resource allocation
Source: https://www.akaza.lk/pages/iaas.php
Yalu Chat - IM for Sri Lanka
Absence of physical presence
Provides user interaction through
Discussion forums
File sharing

Marketplace for selling products and services

Find & connect with nearby people & businesses instantly
Express feelings in Sri Lankan way with 100s of Sri Lankan stickers
Say words in Sinhala or Tamil easily typable with Helakuru
Widen social network by adding more friends
Join with Sri Lanka's most friendly public chat
Create friend groups & message to all in group same time
Instant messaging with friends in contact list
Sensor networks enable the control and monitoring applications
Smart chips embedded into credit cards
Use of contact-less cards in building access/security systems
Requirement for traceability in food production and processing

Computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers which are connected together through local area networks
Visible as a single computer
In cluster computing each cluster works as an independent node
Has its own operating system, memory and sometimes own file system
Clusters use message passing technique to retrieve and pass data from one node to another
Cluster computing has improved reliability and speed provided by single computers

A group of networked computers which work together as a virtual supercomputer
Use to solve complex problems with large computational power such as climate modeling, drug design and protein analysis
Computers are loosely coupled, heterogeneous and geographically dispersed
eScience-Open Grid Computing Environment Toolkit
Developed by Lanka Software Foundation
Provides a platform for scientists to compose, execute, monitor and share their experiments as scientific work flows
Conducted to solve problems in domains such as particle physics, bio-informatics, earth sciences
Parties involved in these projects belong to different organizations such as governments, universities and private firms
Aims to minimize the barriers by not only automating scientific workflows
Type of computation in which execution of processes are carried out simultaneously
A computational task is broken down into several very similar sub tasks that can be processed independently
Results are combined afterward upon completion
The gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas
At different socio-economic levels
With regard to both their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities
Bridging the Digital Divide
ICTA initiated the Nenasala project in order to raise the IT literacy of Sri Lanka
Ways of Measuring Digital Divide
Access infrastructure – e.g. mobile phones, TVs, community access centres
Communication infrastructure – Internet bandwidth, mobile phone coverage, telephone, Internet/broadband
Household income and whether there is capacity to purchase and subscribe to ICTs
ICT skills curriculum in education
Government policies for enabling access (e-government, competition/regulatory frameworks, tariff structure)

Implemented under the e-Sri Lanka Initiative
Known as the “Vishva Gnana Kendra Project (Nenasala)”
Introduce several models of the tele-centres or knowledge centres to be established in all parts of Sri-Lanka
To spread ICT services to the rural and semi-urban population.
The main objectives of a Nenasala is to assist communities in:
Poverty reduction
Social and economic development, and
Peace building
Creation of virtual machines that act like a real computer with its own OS

Multiple instances of such virtual machines are run on one physical machine

Goal - Consolidate hardware resources

Digital Divide
Infrastructure of the Internet
IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet protocol
IPv4 allows for four billion IP addresses
IPv6 provides for 3.4 x 1038 addresses
Devices can be configured automatically when connected to IPv6 network
Source sends information only once, to be received by many, which helps with network efficiency
Jumbo grams
IPv4 has a limit of 64kB payload while IPv6 can do up to 4GB

Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)
IPSec, the protocol for IP network-layer encryption and authentication, is an integral part of the IPv6 base protocol
File or data transfer can continue uninterrupted as a device “roams”
Quality of service
There is better support for multimedia and other applications requiring quality of service
Better routing features
There is more efficient fragmentation reassembly and support for today’s networks and routers
Virtual infrastructure or hardware

Internal business networks such a private clouds and virtual local area networks

Hardware resources for virtual server space, network connections, bandwidth, IP addresses and load balancers

A branch of Computer Science
Pursues creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings
AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem
Then used outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems
Goals of AI
To Create Expert Systems − Systems which exhibit intelligent behavior, learn, demonstrate, explain and advise its users
To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines − Creating systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans
Natural Language Processing
Expert Systems
Vision Systems
Speech Recognition
Handwriting Recognition
Intelligent Robots
Applications of AI
The DOF ROBOTIC ARM was displayed as at the EXMO Exhibition organized by University of Moratuwa 2017
Arm has capability to lift small objects using its limb
Accessing & storing of data & applications through the Internet rather than via personal computers
Consists of elastic resources which can be scale up or down without much effort
Metered service-we have to pay only for what we use

Scaling- vertical or horizontal or as a combination of both
Vertical scaling-scaling by adding more power to an existing machine
Horizontal scaling-scaling by adding more machines to pool of resources
Enabled virtual machines, virtualized storage, load balancing, auto scaling, virtualized network, multi-tenancy and self-healing

McLarens Group goes to Cloud with Microsoft Azure
Etisalat Sri Lanka adopts Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
Use of local scripts in the domain name part of websites
Will allow users to navigate the Internet in the script they are familiar with, rather than having to use and recognize domain names in English

Heterogeneous IT infrastructure with solutions from various vendors
Reduced 40 servers down to 6 servers
Drastic reduction in TCO
Fewer machines - reduction in space, cooling and power needs
Source: https://www.redhat.com/en/about/press-releases/etisalat
Hosted enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship management (CRM) applications
Azure Virtual machines
Source: http://www.dailymirror.lk/article/McLarens-Group-goes-to-Cloud-with-Microsoft-Azure-126440.html
Refers to delivery of software applications over the Internet on demand and mostly based on a subscription
Cloud providers host and manage software applications
Users can access applications using the Internet over a web browser
Provides servers and virtual machines, storage, networks, operating systems on pay-per-use-basis
Through this cloud computing service we do not need to invest in our own hardware
Infrastructure is designed in way which scales on demand to support dynamic workloads
Refers to supply of environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications on demand
PaaS has facilitated developers with easy creation of web and other applications without spending time to set up underlying infrastructure needed for development
Lanka Government Cloud (LGC)
Government owned community
and is owned and managed by ICTA
LGC is to host central, web based and cloud ready
e-government systems
developed by SL government organizations
SL government organizations can use centrally available s/w services provided by LGC after signing an agreement
Once an agreement is signed by an organization to use LGC, particular server resources belong to that organization until agreement is terminated
LGC 2.0 will be hosting an
big data platform
, m-Gov application, e-Gov applications, government websites, portals and other required common platforms, applications and services for citizens engagement
Building Blocks of Communication Systems
Developed by ICTA which is the official web portal of Sri Lankan government. The site is available in all three languages Sinhala, Tamil and English

A web portal developed by ICTA which provides the Sri Lankans to surf the web and access information easily and efficiently using their mother tongue

Connectivity Medium
Physical – Copper cables, twisted pair
Non physical - Wi-Fi

Network Devices
CPE - Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modems, Network Termination Units, Data Termination Units, Terminal Adapters and Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX) system
Concentrators and multiplexers
Wiring Closet

The next version of the LGC (LGC 2.0) will consist of a
big data cluster
which will store government data belong to any category
Big data analytics
which can be effectively used for economic growth of the country and
open data portal
which will be aligned with the national priorities are two key outputs of the big data cluster
Lanka Government Cloud (LGC)
Internet applications
Trends of Communication Systems
A computer network, essentially internal to an organization but built using Internet protocols (TCP/IP) from the public Internet

Optical Fiber
(eg: Trans-ocean connections linking the USA with Africa, Asia, Europe and the Pacific, FTTH, FFTD)

Satellite based connections (VSAT)

Wireless Technology (Wifi)

Sri Lanka Telecom (SLT)
Consists of Knowledge Management system
Facilitates e-learning for employees
Fiber Cable Connectivity via India

The objective is provide increasing internet/communications bandwidth to Sri Lanka to facilitate the increase in the demand for internet and other information technology and communication services. To also have a second cable which will provide backup in case a single cable failure.

1) Phase 1 2016 Project Study
2) Phase 2 2017 initial deployment and testing
3) Phase 3 2018 Full deployment and acceptance
Source: http://www.slt.lk/en/content/slt-has-been-recognized-first-kmpro-certified-knowledge-management-organization-sri-lanka
Lanka Government Cloud (LGC)
Brandix Lanka Limited
IaaS- hosting centralized,cloud ready applications
SaaS- eRevenue license, common HRM, eLocal Government
Systems currently hosted in LGC
Lanka Gate
e-Revenue License
Shana Disaster Management System
e-Local Government
Location Code and Village List
Easier-to-manage portal
Product, marketing, financial, HR, and workflow information
Centrally and easily accessed and updated by users
World wide web (WWW) - A system of interlinked hypertext that is accessed via the internet
Email - A method of creating, sending, receiving and storing messages over an electronic communication system
FTP - A method to transfer data between computers using a network
GIS - Used to analyse, edit, store, share and display geographically referenced data
Eg: Google Maps, Google Earth, Microsoft Virtual Earth and Live Maps
VoIP - The Internet as a Telephony Medium

Lanka Government Network Postal Office Connect (LGN P-CONNECT)
To build highly available, secure and reliable government network to link all post offices to a single digital infrastructure
Project has been implemented in 200 post offices in year 2016
Source: https://www.microsoft.com/srilanka/CaseStudiesBrandix.aspx
Lanka Government Network Postal Office Connect (LGN P-CONNECT)
Lanka Government Network Postal Office Connect (LGN P-CONNECT)
A convenient and secure way
Use the Internet as a medium to interconnect an organization’s multiple & physically separated sites or mobile workers
Sri Lanka VPN by PureVPN
Internet Exchange Parties –
Creating interconnections between multiple ISPs

International redundancy -
Since internet has become an integral part in business, communication, entertainment and research, network continuity is critical and international gateway providers must be encouraged to have redundancy in their links to the internet


of the Internet Cont..
PureVPN is a leading VPN service provider
With 750+ servers in 141 countries
super-fast speed, complete anonymity and full-proof security
Source: https://www.purevpn.com/blog/purevpn-adds-sri-lanka-vpn-server/
Connects 325 government offices
Lanka Ashok Leyland - connects five branches, carrying voice and mission critical data securely and reliably
Source: http://www.island.lk/2007/11/05/business8.html
Sri Lanka Police
Connects the Police Stations in Sri Lanka
Secure and efficient communication between police stations
Source: https://www.police.lk/index.php/special-events-/1019-launching-the-vpn-project
John Keells Holdings PLC
Rural BPO project - CSR initiative
Connects e-village at Mahavilachchiya, Seenigama
Assist rural youth in Sri Lanka to find sustainable employment and career opportunities in the business outsourcing industry
Internet Protocol Television (IPTV)
Delivery of a digital TV service over network infrastructure using the Internet protocol
IPTV services can be classified into 3 main groups
Live television - with or without related interactivity
Time-shifted media
eg. catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago)
start-over TV (replays the current TV show from its beginning)
Video on demand (VOD)- browse and view items in a stored media catalog

Source: http://www.infomateworld.com/csr/rural-bpos.html
Augmented Reality (AR)
Refers to the use of computer-generated sensory input (such as graphics or sound) to enhance a real-world environment
Turns environment around us into a digital interface by placing virtual objects in real world, in real-time

Refers to evolution of telecommunications networks from traditional circuit-switched networks to packet-switched networks
One network transporting all services (voice, video, data), much like the Internet, as opposed to having one network for voice and one for data/multimedia
NGN is built on the Internet protocol and is also sometimes referred to as “All-IP” networks
ICTA already has implemented Lanka Government Network (LGN) connecting more than 500 government organizations in the country
Next Generation Network (NGN)
Virtual Reality (VR)
Replaces real-world with a virtual one
User is able to experience and interact in a complete virtual environment generated by a computer complete with graphics, sound and other users
Recent advances in technology allow use of sensory input to enhance user’s virtual reality experience

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Basic ICT equipment

512Kbps connectivity to government institutions

ICTA has planned to connect 3,500 government organizations and buildings

With a minimum bandwidth of 100Mbps
Source: https://www.icta.lk/projects/lanka-government-network-2-0-lgn-2-0/
DSL uses normal telephone wires to deliver digital data transmission
There are many variations of DSL and usually letter preceding “DSL” indicates what technology is being used
ADSL-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
SDSL-Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line
VDSL-Very high speed Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL is probably the most common DSL
One cable deliver both data and voice
Lanka Government Network (LGN)
ICTA has planned to connect 3,500 government organizations and buildings with a minimum bandwidth of 100 Mbps, and this will be further expanded up-to 7,500 locations by connecting country’s post office network
All of these locations will be facilitated with Wi-Fi zones, which will create a conducive environment to the citizens to use government services conveniently
This will be LGN 2.0
People’s Bank
Sri Lanka’s first ever eco-friendly savings product
Under the concept ‘Go Green with Yes’
Provides banking services electronically
Source: http://www.ft.lk/article/439879/People-s-Bank-launches-Sri-Lanka-s-first-green-banking-initiative-for-youth-through-%E2%80%98YES
Sri Lanka Telecom
3-Tier data center under Gold Rated Green building certification
Reduce the carbon footprint
Source: http://www.slt.lk/en/content/slt-gets-go-construct-tier-3-internet-data-center-pitipana
Lanka Government Network (LGN)
Lanka Government Network 2.0 (LGN 2.0)
Lanka Government Network (LGN) 2.0 has been proposed by ICTA to be implemented from 2016-2018
LGN 2.0 aims at connecting a significant amount of government locations and each location will be provided with wi-fi facility
It is intended to provide high speed and secure connectivity for all e-Government initiatives
Use radio waves to create a communication link between two or more points with end devices using Ethernet to complete the link
Range of a Wi-Fi access point which allows Wi-Fi enabled equipment to communicate with each other
Indoors - around 30 metres
Outdoors- around 100 metres
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax)
Overcome limitations of DSL and Wi-Fi by providing high-speed broadband access over wireless technology
Cheaper to deploy and widespread coverage similar to that of mobile phone networks
WiMax specifications allow speeds up to 70Mbps and a range up to 50 km from base station with no line-of-sight requirements between user and base station
Can operate at various frequencies ranging from 2GHz-11GHz and 10GHz-66GHz
The Internet of Things enables objects sharing information with other objects/members in network, recognizing events and changes so to react autonomously in an appropriate manner
The IoT therefore builds on communication between things (machines, buildings, cars, animals etc.) that leads to action and value creation
IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data from diverse locations, with consequent necessity for quick aggregation of data and increase in need to index, store, and process such data more effectively
IoT is one of the platforms of today's Smart City, and Smart Energy Management Systems
A term for data sets that are so large or complex that traditional data processing software is inadequate to deal with them
Big data can be analyzed for insights that lead to better decisions and strategic business moves
Key Characteristics
Volume- Data Quantity
Velocity- Data Speed
Variety- Data Types, Big Data analysis includes different types of data
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals
It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements
3rd Generation (3G)
The third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology
3G mobile phones are multimedia devices (Smartphones) with ability to access the Internet, send and receive audio and video
Smartphones include productivity applications like document editors
3.5G and 3.75G refer to more recent releases of 3G technology
Allow for higher data speeds with speeds ranging from 7.2Mbps to 56Mbps or more depending on technology deployed by service provider
4th Generation (4G)
Fourth generation of mobile phone communication technology and is successor to 3G and earlier standards
4G sets peak download speed for mobile users at 100Mbps and for fixed users at 1Gbps
4th Generation (4G)
In 2014, Sri Lanka was the first country in the region to get 4G thanks to Dialog
In 2015, Sri Lanka was ranked as one of the leading countries with the fastest internet speeds in South Asia
In 2016 June, Sri Lanka beacame 21st country that has 4.5G Internet
This was confirmed by a successful test by Dialog using Huawei’s infrastructure
Computer network

Protocols - TCP/ FTP communication rules

DNS – To access the WWW, send emails ( cmb.ac.lk, yahoo.com, .com)

Whois service – To avoid duplication of domain names, a database is maintained a list of names of the owners and the name servers for each domain

Root name servers – A database of IP addresses of all the top-level domain names
Sri Lankan Instances: Dialog IPTV
SLT Peo Tv
Sri Lankan Instances: Free Wifi zones in public places
SLT free wifi in walking paths
Social Networks
Sensor Networks
Cluster Computing
Grid Computing
Parallel Computing

A startup based in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Specializes in Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality platform development
Main product- cloud based sales & marketing platform powered by the latest augmented reality technology to help drive online sales
SLT Brings Augmented Reality to Majestic City
In 2015, Sri Lanka Telecom revealed their Christmas-themed activation event at Majestic City
Placed a giant LED screen near entrance of MC that shares all movement occurring in the corridor in front of it
But when walked closer to the screen, we’ll be greeted by a comic animated snowman that will amuse us with his antics
Strike a variety of poses to take a selfie with us
Through AR, the snowman appears on the corridor seen in the screen, exactly as if it were present at the actual setting
The event marked the first large-scale augmented reality project in Sri Lanka
Source: http://www.dailymirror.lk/100609/slt-brings-augmented-reality-to-majestic-city
Dialog unveils Sri Lanka’s first-ever virtual reality platform
In 2016, Dialog introduces the 1st virtual reality application for Sri Lanka, featuring historical locations, edutainment and local entertainment
Dialog’s Virtual Reality Platform is the 1st platform in island to integrate 360° pictures, videos, games and advertisements
Users are allowed to create and upload their own VR Content
Source: https://www.icta.lk/projects/lanka-government-cloud-1-0/
Source: https://www.icta.lk/projects/lanka-government-cloud-1-0/
Sources: https://www.icta.lk/digital-infrastructure/
Sources: https://www.icta.lk/digital-infrastructure/
Sources: https://www.icta.lk/digital-infrastructure/
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