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Coronary Heart Disease

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on 17 June 2014

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Transcript of Coronary Heart Disease

CORONARY
HEART DISEASE

Sadia Fatma
HEART
WHAT IS CORONARY HEART DISEASE?
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease.
The heart is a fist-sized, hollow, muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity. It pumps blood received from the veins into the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of blood through the entire circulatory system.
The coronary artery supplies blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. If the inner wall of a coronary artery becomes damaged, cholesterol plaques can build-up, which progressively results in the narrowing of the available pathway through which blood flows.
Causes
•Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels
•High blood pressure
•Smoking

•Insulin resistance

•Diabetes

•Overweight or obesity

•Lack of physical activity

•Age

•Family history of early heart disease
It is caused when plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
•Smoking
•High amount of certain fats in the blood
•High cholesterol
•High blood pressure
•High amount of sugar in the blood due to insulin resistance or diabetes
•Plaque
Plaque is made up fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis.
The clotting of the blood result in the narrowing of the blood vessel, the artery may-be tensed or completely blocked- off.
.The blocked artery results in:
1. the lack of oxygen
2. Ischemia

The result is a heart attack or a stroke.
an abnormal low flow of blood to tissue
When a clot occurs in the
brain it is called a stroke.
When clot occurs in the heart
muscle it is called a heart attack.
•Coronary heart disease is usually caused by a condition called atherosclerosis, which is the narrowing of an artery due to the deposition of a fatty plaque along the internal wall of the arteries.
•This causes them to get narrow. As the coronary arteries get narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop.
•This can cause angina [chest pain cause by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart], shortness of breath, heart attack [acute episode during which the heart fails to pump blood effectively], and other symptoms, usually when you are active.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
RISK FACTOR
Damages and tightens blood vessels, raises cholesterol levels, and raises blood pressure.
Condition occurs when the body can’t use its own insulin properly [Insulin is a
hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood.]
Disease in which the body’s blood sugar level is high because the body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use its insulin properly.
Overweight extra body weight form muscle, bone, fat, and/or water
Obesity having a high amount of extra body fat
Not getting sufficient physical movement
Genetic or lifestyle factors cause plaque to build in your arteries as you age
Risk increases if your father was diagnosed with CAD before 55 years of age, or if your mother was diagnosed with CAD before 65 years of age.
SYMPTOMS
HOW IS THE CAD DIAGNOSED?
•EKG (Electrocardiogram)

•Stress Testing
•Echocardiography

•Chest X Ray
•Blood tests
•Electron- Beam Computed Tomography
Procedure in which the electrical events associated with the beating of the heart are evaluated
Ultrasound procedure in which sound waves are directed through the heart to evaluate heart anomalies.
The electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) scan is a variation of conventional computed tomography (CT) X-ray scans long used to examine various parts of the body. The scan takes about 30 seconds and indicates if there’s enough calcium in your arteries to put you at risk for heart disease. EBCT is somewhat different from a CT scan in that it uses harmless electron beams instead of X-rays to create multiple images of the heart.
HOW IS CAD TREATED?
•Relive symptoms
•Reduce risk factors in an effort to slow, stop, or reverse the buildup of plaque
•Lower the risk of blood clots forming, which can cause heart attack
•Widen or bypass clogged arteries
•Prevent complications of CAD
•Follow a heart healthy eating plan to prevent or reduce high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol and to maintain a healthy weight
•Increase your physical activity. Check with your doctor first to find out how much and what kinds of activities are safe for you
•Lose weight, if you are overweight or obese
•Quite smoking, if you smoke. Avoid exposure to second-hand smoke
•Learn to cope with and reduce stress
What are the major risk factors
that can’t be changed?
•Increasing age
•Gender (males)
•Heredity (relatives who have had atherosclerosis)
•Women
Heart disease is the biggest killer of women. It kills more than breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer combined.
64% of women who die suddenly of heart attack or stroke have no previous symptoms.
Workplace
Resident Students: $40,000 to $70,000/a
Self-employed cardiologists: $200,000 to $400,000/a
Employed Cardiologists: $100,000 to $200,000/a
>>
$500,000/a
based on their busy work schedules!
CARDIOLOGIST
INCOME
Education
Cardiac-Operation-theater
Regina General Hospital
Surgeons, cardiologists and radiologists work hand in hand
High School
Suggested:
. ELA 20, A-30, B30
. Foundations and
Pre-calculas
. Biology
. Chemistry
. Physics
. History 30
. other electives
Post Secondary
. A 4-year bachelor's degree at
university which includes several
required science courses

. Gain a passing score on the MCAT
(Medical College Admission Test
Possible Courses
. Biology
. Biochemistry
. Microbiology
. Anatomy
. Human Physiology
. Cell biology
Medical School
Usually 4 years:
. First two years - taking courses in
basic medicine and physiology
. Final two years - completing
clerkship and internships at hospitals
and clinics treating patients.
Job Prospects For the Future
A+
Excellent !
Symptoms of Heart Attack
Symptoms of Angina
•Angina is a chest pain or discomfort that occurs when your heart muscle doesn’t get enough oxygenated blood

•Shortness of breath. This symptom happens if CAD causes heart failure. When you have heart failure, your heart can’t pump enough blood throughout your body. Fluid builds up in your lungs, making it hard to breathe.

•Sometimes people who have CAD have no signs or symptoms. This is called silent CAD. It may not be diagnosed until a person shows signs and symptoms of a heart attack, heart failure, or an arrhythmia [ an irregular heart beat]
Echocardiography (ECG)
Electrocardiogram (EKG)
Chest X-Ray
Blood testing
Electron-Beam Computed Tomography
PICTURES
The End
Full transcript