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Cell Research

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James Appletree

on 24 March 2014

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Transcript of Cell Research

What do researchers think is one cause of memory impairment related to growing older? What does new research show that may be able to help reverse this process?

Memory Impairment.
Cell Research
Forgetfulness is common among older adults. You start to talk about something like a book you just recently read and you can’t remember the title. You find yourself in the car and you forget where you were going to go. Memory lapses are frustrating worry about them a little but they are normal.
Age related memory changes are not the same as demntia. As we grow older, we experience physiological changes that can cause glitches in brain functions. Forgetting where you left things you use regularly, such as glasses or keys.
Forgetting names of acquaintances or blocking one memory with a similar one, such as calling a grandson by your son’s name. New researchers have found that the diabetes drug Liraglutide can help prevent Alzheimers which is due to aging older.
How might fat cells be able to help people with spinal cord injuries?
Once a spinal cord injury happens, it is a difficult recovery process to get the damaged nerve cells to regrow. Future research will study how the use of an injured person's fat cells, treated with chemicals and growth factors, could be injected to do cellular repair.
Fat cells can be used to help regenerate function after a spinal cord injury.
The fat cells are harvested from the patient so there is less chance of the body rejecting them. When they tested this they took cells from the humans tissue, treated it with chemicals and growth cells and then it would behave a lot like nerve cells.

Spinal Cord injuries
How are frog eggs being used in research involving human cells?

Immature frog eggs can rejuvenate adult human cells. Molecules in the amphibian nucleus coax mature human and mouse DNA back to an adaptable, stem-cell-like state.

John Gurdon and his colleagues hope to isolate the substances responsible and use them to reprogramme ordinary adult cells, from skin or blood, say. This would yield a limitless supply of donor-matched stem cells with which to repair tissue damaged in diseases such as Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis.
Many researchers are hoping to convert specialized adult cells into a more immature state. Stem cells can be derived from excess early-stage human embryos from fertility treatments. But this approach has ethical and practical limitations - the European Union last week ruled that only embryos created before 27 June 2002 can be used for research. Adult stem cells exist, but their potential is uncertain.

What are Schwann cells? How are they affected in multiple sclerosis patients?
The patients in the small phase I/II trial continued to improve for up to 24 months after the stem cell transplant and then stabilized. They experienced improvements in areas in which they had been affected by multiple sclerosis including walking, ataxia, limb strength, vision and incontinence.
The study was published online January 30 and will appear in the March issue of The Lancet Neurology.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central
nervous system.
In its early stages, the disease is characterized by intermittent neurological symptoms, called relapsing-remitting MS. During this time, the person will either fully or partially recover from the symptoms experienced during the attacks. Common symptoms are visual problems, fatigue, sensory changes, weakness or paralysis of limbs, tremors, lack of coordination, poor balance, bladder or bowel changes and psychological changes.

What role do cells play in preventing the stomach from digesting itself?
Mouth-Chewing breaks food into smaller particles so that chemical digestion can occur faster.Enzymes-Salivary amylase breaks starch down to maltose .Bicarbonate ions in saliva act as buffers, maintaining a pH between 6.5 and 7.5.
Mucins lubricate and help hold chewed food together in a clump called a bolus.The tongue contains chemical receptors in structures called taste buds. Theses are discussed in the chapter on sensory systems.The tongue is muscular and can move food. It pushes food to back where it is swallowed.Pharynx-The respiratory and digestive passages meet in the pharynx. They separate posterior to the pharynx to form the esophagus and trachea .Swallowing is accomplished by reflexes that close the opening to the trachea.When swallowing, the epiglottis covers the trachea to prevent food from entering.
In the mouth, food is mixed with saliva and formed into a bolus.Peristalsis refers to rhythmic contractions that move food in the gut. Peristalsis in the esophagus moves food from the mouth to the stomach.Stomach-The stomach stores up to 2 liters of food.Gastric glands within the stomach produce secretions called gastric juice.The muscular walls of the stomach contract vigorously to mix food with gastric juice, producing a mixture called chyme.

stem cell research
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