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Copy of Ecology

Ecology notes

Jenn Dagley

on 7 September 2018

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Transcript of Copy of Ecology

Matter and Energy are constantly moving through our ecosystem
Matter cannot be created nor destroyed
it must be recycled.
Are constantly moving through our ecosystem.
Matter and energy
What is it?
Why am I taking this class?
Biology deals predominantly with living things…but what exactly defines life???
All organisms are composed of cells.
All organisms are have to respond to stimuli in the enviornment...Often called Sensitivity
All organisms use energy.... often called metabolism.
All organisms must have the ability to reproduce. (Sexual or asexual)
All organisms must grow over their lifetime...grow, develop, and maintain.
All living organisms strive to maintain Homeostasis.
All living organisms must be able to adapt to a changing enviorment.
7 Characteristics of Life!
ECOLOGY- The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
Biosphere contains the combined portions
of the planet in which all life exists,
including land, water, and air, or atmosphere.

It extends from about 8 kilometers
above Earths’ surface to as far as 11 kilometers
below the surface of the ocean.
Biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water, and air, or atmosphere.
It extends from about 8 kilometers above Earths’ surface to as far as 11 kilometers below the surface of the ocean.
The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment
Complexity of Life
Every organism is connected in some way to many other organisms and the connections/interactions occur between living and non-living parts of the world
For an ecosystem to be stable AND self-sustaining, there must be:
a constant source of energy
a cycle of materials between living organisms in the ecosystem & the environment
Living Organisms...they must express the characteristic of living things!
Biotic Factors
Nonliving things that determine what types of organisms can live in a particular environment
Abiotic Factors
Without a constant input of energy, living systems cannot function.
Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth

Energy Flow
AKA- Producers

An organisms that has the ability to make its own food. It uses energy from the sun to do this

A swamp is loaded with producers
AKA- Consumer

An organism that does NOT have the ability to make its own food.

We can group them based on what
they like to eat!

There are lots of different
types of Heterotrophs!

A herbivore is an animal that eats only producers (plants)
Meat eater
Eat both plants and animals. An herbivore and an carnivore
Feed on dead decaying matter.
They turn dead decaying matter into usable nutrients.
One Member of One Species!
Several members of the same species living together at the same time.
Includes several different species living together in the same area at the same time.
All living organisms in an area and the nonliving features of their environment.
aka- Biomes

The place an organism actually lives.
Its home!
An organisms place and fucntion in an environment
Physical location.
Trophic level.
Limit and tolerance for environmental factors.
Relationship to other organisms.
Niche- is determined by
several by the following:
The relationship between 2 organisms
that live in close association with one another.
Where one organsim will benefit at the expense of an another.
Some species of wasp lay their egg inside the caterpillar. The larva will eat the caterpillar from the inside out.
Acacia and ants
Relationship where both organisms benefit!

Ex:. The bulls horn acacia has special enlarged thorns that house colonies of ants. The acacia’s nectar attract the ants, which use it as their major food source. In return, the ants protect the acacia from being eaten by caterpillars and other herbivourous insects.

The relationship where one organism benefits and the other organism is neither helped or harmed.
Clown fish and sea anemones
Remora and sharks
Barnacles and Whales
Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary.
Begins in a place without soil
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Where soil already exits.
Water Cycle
97% of the water on earth is in the oceans.
Only 3% of the water on earth is freshwater.
About 2.4% of the water on earth is permanently
frozen in glaciers and the polar ice caps.
About 1/2 of 1 % of the water on earth is
Only about 1/100 of 1% of the water on earth is
in the rivers and lakes.
The purpose of the water cycle is that it collects, purifies, and distributes Earth’s fixed water supply.
It is a repeated cycle of water between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.
Water Cycle
This cycle is made up of a few main parts:
evaporation (& transpiration)
Water Cycle
Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air.
People perspire (sweat) and plants transpire Transpiration is the process by which plants lose water out of their leaves. Transpiration gives evaporation a bit of a hand in getting the water vapor back up into the air.
Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation.
Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, sleet, hail, or snow
When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land.  When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts
Energy can and is replaced
by the sun which is our constant energy source.
All living things are based
of the carbon element.
Carbon Cycle
All living things are called Organic because they contain Carbon
Carbon/Oxygen Cycle
Hint: We do one and plants do one!
The Two key biological process that
makes this cycle work are:
Cellular Respiration
Pants take in CO2 in
exchange give back O2
Humans can have a negative effect on the Carbon Oxygen cycle.
They release too much CO2 into the atmosphere.
Excess CO2
Ways we contribute to Excess CO2
The chief cause of this warming is thought to be the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas which releases into the atmosphere carbon dioxide and other substances known as greenhouse gases.
Global Warming
As the atmosphere becomes richer in these gases, it becomes a better insulator retaining more of the heat provided to the planet by the sun.
Global Warming
As a result... the temperature will rise
Very Important..found in our cells
Make us DNA, proteins, and enzymes
78% of te hatmosphere is made of Nitrogen (N2)
However... in this form nitrogen cannot be used by most organisms.
Nitrogen Cycle
The process of Nitrogen Fixation must occur.
This is done mostly through bacteria (Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria).
They convert N2 into ammonia(NH3) and then into nitrates (NH2)
These are used by plants and then passed to the consumer.
Nitrogen Fixation
Animal waste and other decomposition breaks it down into nitrates.
A process called denitrifixation will take nitrates and return it back to N2
This occurs by bacteria as well.
De-Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen Cycle
Carbon/Oxygen Cycle
Water Cycle
We are first going to focus on the ENERGY part of this statement!
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs and then to various heterotrophs.
An energy pyramid can be used to illustrate how much energy, biomass, or raw number of individuals are available at each trophic level.
PYRAMID OF ENERGY (ecological pyramid) – diagram used to show the flow of the amount of available energy in an ecosystem.

Each level of the pyramids are called TROPHIC LEVELS (1-4)

BIOMASS- The total mass of organic matter at each trophic level
Energy Pyramid
Only about 10% of energy is passed up the pyramid.

90% is loss to Life Process (survival, maintenance reproducing, some is loss to heat.)
Energy Pyramid
Greatest amt. of energy is at the base of the pyramid.
Least amt. of energy is at the top of the pyramid,.
Producers are found at the base of all pyramids.
Energy decreases sharply so there are usually no more than 4 or 5 feeding levels in an ecosystem.
Energy Pyramids
Producers are found at the base of all pyramids.
Primary consumers/herbivores are on the 2nd Trophic Level.
Secondary consumers and omnivores/carnivores are found on the 3rd Trophic level.
Teritary Consumer (aka top consumers) are found at the top of the pyramid. Usually carnivores but you could use a scavenger or decomposer if you wish.
An illustration of how energy moves
from one organism to another.
Food Chains
Several interconnected Food Chain
Food Web
Mammals take in O2
and give off CO2
Cellular Respiration
Burning of Fossil Fuels
Burning of Forest Fires
Oxpecker and Rhino
The oxpecker feeds on the insects,larva and other parasites that it finds on the rhino. This feeds the bird and cleans the rhino. The birds often times also warns the rhino of oncoming danger.
Egrets and Cattle
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