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History of The World in Six Glasses
Transcript of History of The World in Six Glasses
Beer was developed as early as 10,000 BCE in the Fertile Crescent. Extremely influential in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, it also influenced the Aztec, Inca, and Chinese Civilizations. Beer was not only the result of farming, but encouraged farming and other neolithic advancements.
Beer is made from grain. Discovery of beer encouraged people to stay put to cultivate grain. Tools for grain storage and cultivation were developed. Discovery of different malting techniques and fermentation was the result of beer making.
Production and Technology
Neolithic Revolution / Technology
Beer encouraged population growth of ancient peoples. Beer contains nutrients from grain. Beer is also made from boiled water which eliminates water-borne diseases. Beer making like farming was key to growth of ancient civilizations.
Beer was thought to be a gift from the gods. The Egyptian and Mesopotamian people sacrificed beer to the gods. Beer was used in agricultural fertility and funeral rites. Its religious importance encouraged the building of temples for sacrifices to the gods.
Priests in charge of sacrifices to the gods was the start of bureaucracy.
Keeping records of offerings to the gods lead to the development of a writing system. Since beer is a liquid, it is easy to divide. Therefore, it was used as payment to the kings and in trade among civilians.
Stories such as the "Epic of Gilgamesh," involves beer. Ancient art depicts beer and those drinking it. Beer's power to sedate lead to early forms of medicine.
Surplus of grain allowed for population growth, job specialization, and development of cities. Cities became centers of trade and religion. Beer was thus associated with prosperity and well-being. The Mesopotamian people associated beer with the civilized man. This was an early form of ethnocentrism. Beer was a social drink. Ancient people toasted beer to health and friendship.
Because wine was expensive to export and cultivation was specific to certain regions, the Greeks and Romans developed a sense of ethnocentrism. The Romans made large villa estates operated by slaves. Farmers moved to the city. Rome's population reached one million by 0 CE.
Wine was developed during the Neolithic Period: 9000 B.C.E.-4000 B.C.E., in the Zagros Mountains. By about 2500 B.C.E., wine making spread to Greece and to modern-day Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt.
Wine flourished in the Greek and Roman empires, where grape cultivation thrived. Grape cultivation rapidly spread in the seventh century BCE. The Greeks and Romans exported much of their wine which increased both empires' prosperity. Additionally, wine increased trade and contact with different peoples. Those with land for vineyards were wealthy. Wine increased social class divisions. Proper equipment, furniture, and dress all showed a drinkers' sophistication. Romans further developed wine differentiations. At the convivium, or Roman banquet, different wines would be given to different people based on their social class.
Wine's economic importance to Greece is shown through vine images on greek coins. In the sixth century BCE, Greek social classes were based upon vineyard holdings. Greeks spread wine from southern France to the Crimean peninsula and Egypt to the Danube region. Romans produced so much wine that they had to import grain from their African colonies.
Greek vintners improved the wine press and began the practice of growing vines in neat rows, on trellises and stakes, to increase production and make harvesting easier. The Greeks noticed that wine was safer than water. They used wine to treat wounds. The Romans regarded wine as a medicine intended to regulate the "humors" of the body.
Greek god, Dionysus, was the god of wine. The Greeks drank their wine with water to show how civilized they were. Only Dionysus could drink pure wine. Similarly, the Romans had a wine god, Bacchus. The more recent religion, Christianity, values wine. Christ offered wine at the Last Supper.
A Greek, all-male wine drinking party, called a symposion, underlined the sophistication of the Greeks. Symposias were atmospheres to discuss and debate. Much Greek philosophy was centered around the symposion. Elaborate drinking vessels were made to hold wine.
Spirits are a distilled form of alcohol. Distillation of wine began in the arab world during the first millennium C.E. Spirits were valued for their high alcohol content.
Starting in the fifteenth century, spirits became more of a recreational drink in Europe. Whiskey, distilled beer, became very popular in Ireland. In the New World, slaves were given rum as payment , reward, and to help them withstand harsh conditions.
The European powers found profit in the New World because of its suitable climate for growing sugar cane. Molasses, a byproduct of sugarcane refinery, was soon distilled as rum. Grog, a cocktail of sugar, rum, and lemon or lime juice, drank at sea by the british prevented scurvy. This helped the British defeat the French and Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805. In 1733, Great Britain passed the Molasses Act and in 1764, passed the Sugar Act. These Acts were in order to monopolize the trade of molasses and then increase the price of rum. This made the colonists angry. Rum distillers boycotted British goods. Taxes on these goods without representation in parliament was a cause of the American Revolution. After America's Independence, Spirits continued to influence politics. An excise on liquor was installed in 1791. Although the excise failed, the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion, that occurred in reaction, showed that federal law was to be followed.
During the first millennium CE, Islamic Alchemists used distilled wine as an alchemical ingredient and medicine. Later, Europeans also used it as a medicine. It became known as aqua vitae, or "water of life." In Colonial America, Rum was used as a liquid form of heating.
During the age of Exploration, Spirits were brought to sea. Spirits don't perish, like beer does. The unpalatable water on board was mixed with rum, sugar and lime to make it taste better. Molasses left over from making sugar was used to make cane brandy. In the seventeenth century, this process was refined on Barbados. It made cane brandy much more profitable. The Slavers in Africa and the Indians in the New World loved Spirits. The Europeans and Colonists gave Slavers spirits in return for slaves. Many African slavers would not consider doing business until they received spirits.The Colonists gave Indians spirits in return for land and goods. Rum was made cheaply in Colonial America and therefore was not imported from England. After Colonial America got its independence from Great Britain, Whiskey gained popularity. Whiskey is distilled beverage made from fermented grains. Whiskey was used as currency and given to voters by politicians. It was also drank during birth and death rituals and when legal documents were signed. A law was passed in 1791; distillers were to pay an annual levy or excise duty on each gallon of liquor produced. This was to pay for the debt from the Revolutionary War. Citizens were outraged. In 1794, violence erupted after one farmer was given a writ for not paying the excise. These years of protest became known as the Whiskey Rebellion. In 1801, the law was repealed.
Rum to Africa
enslaved people to the West Indies
Sugar and Molasses to Colonial America and Great Britain
In England, coffeehouses allowed men to discuss politics freely. Discussion in English coffeehouses helped Charles II to take the throne in 1660. In France, coffeehouses were more restricted; government spies sat in coffeehouses, listening in order to suppress any government opposition. French philosopher, Marie Arouet de Voltaire brought political philosophy from England to French coffeehouses. In reaction, opposition to the French government grew so that in 1789, the French Revolution began.
During the 1400s, in the Middle East, coffee was first made into liquid form to drink. Sufi muslims would drink coffee in order to stay awake in prayer, through the night.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, coffeehouses were centers for the creation and trading of ideas and goods. Auctions and lectures were held at coffeehouses. People would write and sell books, debate and discuss science and philosophy, and merchants would do business. Coffeehouses held foreign newsletters and advertisements. Coffeehouses were mailing destinations. Additionally, stock and insurance markets began in coffeehouses.
Coffee was popular among Europeans. During the Age of Exploration, European powers competed for land in the West and East Indies. At this time, coffee was imported from the Middle East. One motivation for colonies in the West Indies was to grow coffee beans and reduce reliance on the Middle East. Those European countries with the most amount of colonies and dominance over trade had the most wealth and power.
Coffeehouses in Europe, especially in England and France were popular meeting places. In England, coffeehouses were only open to men. In France, both men and women were allowed to enter. Not only was it popular among the "information workers," but in France, it was very fashionable among the aristocracy.
Tea was very important in the social life of Great Britain. Tea was a symbol of sophistication. Initially, tea was most popular among the British aristocracy. As tea became cheaper, tea became very popular. It appealed to women, who were not allowed in coffeehouses, and factory workers, who drank tea to stay awake at long shifts. Tea parties and afternoon tea became a tradition in Great Britain. Additionally, tea gardens were established in there. People could go for tea, entertainment, or to find a mate. During the Tang Dynasty in China, tea was the national beverage. Tea became a symbol for their culture and sophistication. In China there was tea drinking parties and banquets (a tradition later elaborated on in Japan). The emperor was given "tribute teas" each year.
Tea played a role in the spiritual health of the Chinese and Japanese. Buddhist and Taoist monks drank tea to improve their concentration and meditation. Tea ceremonies in Japan were extremely elaborate. The ceremonies encompassed religious and cultural influences.
One reason that tea was important to Asia and Europe was for its effects on health. Tea reduced water-borne diseases. When Japan's shogun, Minamoto Sanetomo fell ill, he was cured with tea. He then advocated for tea and spread its popularity throughout Japan. During the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, workers drank tea to keep them awake for long shifts. Because tea carries less disease than water, tea made it safer for the workers to live closely together, in cities, near the factories.
Great Britain first reached China in the early sixteenth century. Tea then reached Great Britain in the 1650s. Tea increased Great Britain's interest in China and by the late eighteenth century, the British East India Company controlled almost all trade with China. Tea's popularity, increased Britain's interest in India and the West Indies. India's climate was favorable for growing tea leaves, while sugar to put in the tea was grown in the West Indies. In 1858, Britain had direct control in India. Tea was so popular that the British East India Company was making more money than the British government. The company therefore had a lot of political power. Tea imports to Colonial America from the British East India Company caused the spark to the American Revolution.
Tea had high economic value in Asia, Europe and Colonial America. Merchants in China during the seventh century, carried tea. Tea was used as currency because of its high value and lift weight. Unlike paper money, tea's value increased as it was taken closer to China's imperial center. The popularity of tea in Great Britain and Colonial America helped their economies. Tea production greatly increased in India to support the demand. In Colonial America, merchants smuggled tea to avoid paying for taxed tea from Great Britain. Tea's popularity also affected the production of sugar and crockery. More sugar was grown to be put into tea. Tea crockery sets were bought as part of the tea drinking tradition.
In 1886, John Pemberton created Coca-Cola, containing extract from the Coca plant, Kola nut, sugar and soda water. Originally, it was advertised not only as a refreshing drink but also as a patented medicine.
Coca-Cola has embodied American values. During World War II, troops were supplied with coke in submarines and at civilian american naval bases all over the world. "Coca-Cola," was the password to cross the Rhine. Troops drank coke as a form of patriotism. After the war, the Coca-Cola industry was set up on every continent except Antarctica.
Coca-Cola is a growing industry; it operates on over 200 territories throughout the world. Coca-Cola is a symbol of globalization. Coca-Cola is spreading to developing nations. Coca-Cola brings economic benefits to the country it sets up in and it brings American culture to the country. Producing Coca-Cola in developing countries is cheaper, and therefore also benefits the American economy. An analysis by "The Economist" magazine in 1997 found that Coca-Cola was found in countries with greater wealth, quality of life, and social and political freedom.
Spread of Tea
Countries that Consume Coca-Cola
These six drinks parallel change and continuity over time. Not only does each drink reflect the elements of certain societies and the world at a particular time, but it also influences those elements. From beer to Coca-Cola, our world has become increasingly advanced and connected.
What will our seventh glass be?
Spirits' high alcohol content and effect on the body lead to beliefs that it improved memory; treated diseases of the brain, nerves, and joints; revived the heart, calmed toothaches; cured blindness, and much more.
By the late thirteenth century, spirits were known as a magical medicine, aqua vitae, or "water of life." It was known to preserve youth.
Although coffee was first developed in the Middle East in the 1400s, coffee had a huge impact on Europe too. Opposition to coffee did not stop it from becoming a popular drink. Coffee brought people together and encouraged exchange of ideas as well as political revolution. On July 12, 1789, the French Revolution was set into motion outside of a cafe.
Coffee prompted scientific and technological discoveries. Scientists; Hooke, Pepys, and Edmond Halley often met at coffeehouses for discussion and debate. The result was that one of the greatest books in the history of science was written; "Mathematical principles of natural philosophy," by Isaac Newton in 1687.
Tea affected societies in Asia and Europe. Tea had cultural and economic. It affected all classes of society; from the "working man" in Great Britain to the emperors of China. It also influenced global trade between Europe and Asia.
Tea inspired books and rules for tea drinking. "The Classic of Tea," by Taoist poet, Lu Yu in 780 CE and Japanese tea-master, Rikyu of the seventeenth century, both wrote on the ways that tea should be served and drank.
Coca-Cola is a big industry. Although Coca-Cola originally contained cocaine, it soon became a product aimed at children and teens. In this way, it differed from tea and coffee. A 1931 advertisement depicts Santa Claus drinking Coca-Cola.
In 1965, when Coca-Cola was looking to set up business in Communist Russia, American opposition soon followed. Some Coca-Cola profits would go to the Soviet Union. It was argued that the money may be given to help Vietnam, against the United States, during the Vietnam War.
Coca-Cola is drunk throughout the world. It reflects how globalized and connected our societies are.
In 2003, during the Iraq War, anti-american Muslim youths in Thailand poured Coca-Cola on the ground and Coca-Cola sales were suspended.