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The Road to the American Civil War
Transcript of The Road to the American Civil War
had resources superiority
had a higher number of people
faster food production
and a railroad system to move between states faster North Vs South Emancipation Proclamation The emancipation was issued on January 1, 1863 by Abraham Lincoln. It took place after the victory over the Southern troops at Virginia in the Antietam Creek.This allowed the Union soldiers behind Confederate lines to free and release all slaves in the Southern regions. "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within these said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive Government of the United States, including military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.
And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them that in all cases, when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.
And I further declare and make known that such persons of suitable conditions will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.
And, upon this, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God." -from the Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1, 1863 The Emancipation Proclamation The Proclamation freed the slaves who was under Confederate control, not the ones under Union control. The Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment The Thirteenth Amendment The Republicans we're enraged by Johnson's acts. They devised up a plan to change the Reconstruction Movement from the Executive to the Legislative.
In the 1866's, they overrode the President's veto of the Civil Rights Act and the Freedmen's Bureau Act. They then made the Fourteenth Amendment, which prevented the States from denying rights and privileges to any U.S. citizen.
This definition was to nullify the decision of the Dred Scott case. When there was a presidential election in 1868, the Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant was elected president by a 306,000 margin out of the 6 million.
Out of the 6 million ballots, 500,000 South African Americans voted and 9/10 voted for Grant.
After that election, the Radical Republicans made the Fifteenth Amendment. The amendment states that anyone can vote regardless of "race,skin color, or previous condition of servitude."
This was ratified on 1870 by the states and it was a big victory for the Radicals.
The Amendments had the U.S. slowly change into a anti-slavery nation. Reconstruction Plans The Union in Peril By
Abishek Gollapudi Compromise of 1850 Northern Victories
California is admitted
into Union as a free state
Slave trade abolished in
District of Columbia The Confederates
didn't have any of these advantages
they had "King Cotton"
soldiers with higher morale. Northern Plan for victory
The Union navy would go blockade the Southern ports so the South couldn't import nor export anything.
Union would send riverboats and troops down the Mississippi River to split the Confederates in two halves.
They would then conquer the capital and headquarters of the Confederates:Richmond, Virginia. Southern Victories
New Fugitive Slave Act
Texas and New Mexico border issue is resolved with Texas receiving $10 million When Congress met in 1849, the issue of statehood for California and the border dispute between Texas and New Mexico led to much tension. Henry Clay worked to shape a compromise that would please both Northern and Southern states but this compromise was not passed until Fillmore became President. When the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, many Northerners saw it as a clear victory for the south. In response, many Northerners became abolitionists and formed communities to help slaves leave the country itself. Meanwhile some people resorted to violence to free the slaves while others worked to help the slaves themselves escape. The most famous of these communities is the Underground Railroad which helped hundreds of slaves escape. The Southerners were enraged that Northerners would help their slaves escape and viewed it as an attempt to deprive them of their property. As a result, the debate over slavery became heated, and tensions rose which eventually led to the civil war. Popular Sovereignty- Utah and New Mexico can choose to slave states or not through voting. Fugitive Slave Act- Fugitive slaves are not entitled to trial by jury. Anyone found helping a slave escape will be fined and possibly sent to jail. This now gave the war a moral purpose of fighting for anti-slavery. The Africans were allowed to fight in the war. This only gave African Americans in the South freedom, however. Fugitive Slave Act Thus, the Thirteenth Amendment was created and was ratified by the end of 1865. It stated that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States." Soon after the Compromise of 1850, Senator Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Although Kansas and Nebraska were legally closed to slavery because they lay above the Missouri Compromise line, Douglas proposed that these states should have the right of popular sovereignty. Tension in Kansas Furthermore, everyone wanted a transcontinental railroad but the North wanted it in the north while the South wanted it in the south. However, Kansas-Nebraska Territory was unsettled and many people thought it was dangerous because it was occupied by Native Americans. Therefore Douglas also proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act to populate that territory with U.S. citizens. As a result, he suggested that the territory be broken into two territories in the hopes on creating one free state and one slave state. The prospect of another slave state motivated Southerners to come to Kansas and vote in favor of slavery. After the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, both pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters flooded into Kansas to vote on the issue of slavery. However, bloodshed had already started when pro-slavery supporters attacked anti-slavery supporters at the border of canvas. Furthermore, thousands of pro-slavery supporters crossed to Kansas from Missouri and voted in favor of slavery. As a result, a pro-slavery government was formed in Lecompton and in response, the anit-slavery supporters enacted a government in Topeka. Both sides despised the other and bloodshed ensued over control of Kansas. This even also led to bloodhsed in the Senate when an antil-slavery senator was brutally attacked. The debate and fight over Kansas was very bitter because both sides desperately wanted that territory. Significance This was the period to rebuild the worn nation from the war. Lincoln preferred the easy way of reconstruction. He proposed the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. The Confederates would swear allegiance to the Union and be pardoned by the government, except high-ranking officials and people who were accused of crimes.
Four states, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia, began to move toward readmission into the Union. Dred Scott However, Lincoln was assassinated before he could fully implement his plan. Andrew Johnson, who was the next in line, declared his own plan. He excluded high-ranking officers and wealthy landowners from taking the oath. He, however, pardoned more than 13K Confederates. Congress wanted to enlarge the Freedman's Bureau and the Civil Rights Act. Those were to prohibit the passing of "black codes" and gave African Americans citizenship. They were both vetoed by President Johnson, which shocked everyone. Johnson was later impeached with U.S. Grant taking the presidential seat. In 1857, a slave named Dred Scott appealed to the Supreme Court freedom because his owner had taken him into free territory. However the Supreme Court decreed that Scott couldn't sue because he was property and that being in free territory does not make a slave free. However, similar to the other branches of government the Supreme Court pushed this case off because it didn't want to address the issue of slavery directly. What It Was Significance Many Northerners saw the Supreme Court's decision as evidence that that the slave states' had too much influence on the federal government. Furthermore, they saw the Dred Scott decision as guaranteeing the extension of slavery. Free states were worried that they wouldn't be able to prevent slave owners from bringing and selling slaves in free territory. Overall, the decison scared abolitionists who feared the spread of slavery. As a result, tensions continued to rise.