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The World Between Wars (1919-1939)
Transcript of The World Between Wars (1919-1939)
Women's Rights and Lives
Modern Art and Architecture
Popular Culture (The Jazz Age)
New Directions in Painting
Before World War One, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque created a new style called cubism.
These paintings were three dimensional and had complex patterns of angles and planes.
Abstract- art composed only of lines, colors and shapes, sometimes with no recognizable subject.
Dada- movement burst into the art world.
Surrealism- movement that attempts to portray workings of unconscious movement.
New Styles of Architecture
Famous Bauhaus school in Germany influenced architecture by blending science and technology with design.
The buildings featured glass, steel, and concrete.
American architect Frank Lloyd Wright help that the function of a building shoulf determine its form.
Many Western artists rejected traditional styles.
They explored many dimensions on line, art, and shape.
- wild beasts
These events and artists took place in the 1900s.
There were new methods of art that were used/invented by the painters of this time.
The Roaring Twenties
Melodies and endless subtle variations in rhythm and beat were improvised by Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington
Some symbols of freedom were sounds of jazz and nightclubs.
One symbol of rebellious Jazz Age youth was the liberated young women called flappers.
The flappers began in America, but then their ideas spread to the European women.
Flappers rejected the old ways in favor of new exciting freedom
Reactions to the Jazz Age
Americans supported prohibition.
Prohibition- a ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
Eighteenth, or Prohibition amendment was ratified in 1919.
Prohibition was meant t keep people from the negative effects of alcohol.
Instead this cause an explosion of organized and speakeasies.
Christian fundamentalist movement had swept rural areas.
Popular preacher had traveled around the country holding revival meetings.
In 1925 John T. Scoped a biology teachr was tried for teaching evolution in his classroom.
He was found guilty in a trial that was well publicized.
The 1920's called the Jazz Age
American popular culture was embraced by Europeans
Young people rejected moral values and rules of Victorian age after the war
Social activists for almost 90 years had an intense campaign against alcohol abuse.
The daily lives of Americans and Europeans were transformed from new ideas and technology
Silent move stars had fans on every continent
Throughout the Western world radios brought news, music, and sports into homes
Flappers were highly visible even though they were a small minority.
Women had a wide range of jobs at this time.
A few women were elected to a public office.
Miriam Ferguson and Lady Nancy Astory; the first women to serve in th British parliament.
Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and canned foods were new inventions that helped women.
Emancipation- When women pursued careers in many areas from sports to the arts.
Most professions were still dominated by men.
A Loss of Faith
To many postwar writers symbolized the moral break down of the western civilizations.
American novelist Ernest Hemingway was a novelist who did explain these horrors.
Another important person in this time period was, American writer, Gertrude Stein.
Literature of the Inner-Mind
A well known British novelist was Virginia Wolf.
An important Irish novelist was James Joyce.
They experimented with a stream of consciousness.
Appears to present a characters random thoughts.
In Finnegan Wake, the author explores the inner mind of a hero who is asleep.
The Harlem Renissance
1920s African American cultural awakening called the Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem- Neighborhood in NYC, home to many African Americans.
James Weldon Johnson, Jean Toomer, and Zora Nedie Hurston exported the African American experience in their novels and essays.
The poets Claude Mckay, and Langston Hughes experimented with new styles, white countee.
Cullen adopted poetic forms to new content.
In the 1900s,war novels, poetry, plays, and memories flawed off the presses.
All quiet on the Western Front, by German Novelist Erich Remarque.
Exposed grim horrors of modern warfare.
Science (Physical and natural)
Einsteins Theory of Relativity
Einstein produced his theories in 1905 and 1916
argued that measurements of space and time are not absolute, but are determined by relative positions of the observer.
This raised questions about Newtonian science.
In the postwar years other scientists acme to accept the theory of relativity.
But to general people Einsteins ideas were hard to understand.
They seemed to be beyond human reason.
Fleming Discovers Penicillin
In 1928, Alexander Fleming made a different type of scientific discovery.
He accidentally discovered a nontoxic mold that works to kill bacteria.
Later on, other scientists used his work to develop other antibiotics.
Freud Probes the Mind
Sigmund Freud, an Australian physician also challenged faith in reason.
He thought that a subconsciousness mind drives much of the human behavior.
He also learned that social values had to do wiht peoples actions.
Psychoanalysis- a method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders.
Even though many of his ideas were discredited his ideas hada a great impact far beyond medicine.
Scientific discoveries challenged long help idea about the nature of the world.
Discoveries in the early 1900s created new questions about atoms.
Marie Curie & Radio Activity
A French scientist Marie Curie and others found that atoms such as radium and uranium release particles.
Radio activity can change one element into atoms of another element.
They discovered that atoms are not solid and invisible.
Esler, Ellis. World History the Modern Era. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.
IMDb. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001918/bio>.