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Biology Chapter 9 Section 1 Cellular Respiration
Transcript of Biology Chapter 9 Section 1 Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration Mitochondrion Plant Cells Animal Cells Plant Animal Food serves as a source of raw materials for the cells in the body and as a source of energy. 9-1 Chemical Pathways Matrix Inner membrane Intermembrane space Outer membrane Mitochondrion Animal Cells Both plant and animal cells carry out the final stages of cellular respiration in the mitochondria. Plant Cells
One gram of the glucose, when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3811 calories of heat energy.
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Chemical Energy and Food
What is cellular respiration? Overview of Cellular Respiration Glycolysis Glucose Electrons carried
in NADH and
FADH2 Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Pyruvic acid Cytoplasm Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen. Overview of Cellular Respiration The equation for cellular respiration is:
6O + C H O → 6CO + 6H O + Energy
oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + Energy
What was the equation for Photosynthesis? Overview of Cellular Respiration Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in the mitochondria. Glucose 2 ATP 2 Pyruvic acid 4 ATP 4 ADP 2 ADP ATP Production
At the beginning of glycolysis, the cell uses up 2 molecules of ATP to start the reaction. Glycolysis 2 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ATP 4 ADP 2 Pyruvic acid 2NAD+ To the electron transport chain The NADH molecule holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules. Glycolysis The Advantages of Glycolysis
The process of glycolysis is so fast that cells can produce thousands of ATP molecules in a few milliseconds.
Glycolysis does not require oxygen. Glycolysis When oxygen is not present, or isn't high enough to meet demand, glycolysis is followed by an anaerobic pathway.
Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen. Fermentation
What are the two main types of fermentation? Fermentation Alcoholic Fermentation
Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use alcoholic fermentation, forming ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as wastes.
The equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis is:
pyruvic acid + NADH → alcohol + CO + NAD+ Fermentation Lactic acid fermentation
In many cells, pyruvic acid that accumulates as a result of glycolysis can be converted to lactic acid.
The equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis is:
pyruvic acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+ Fermentation The second part shows the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid. Fermentation The raw materials required for cellular respiration are
carbon dioxide and oxygen.
glucose and water.
glucose and oxygen.
carbon dioxide and water. 9-1 Glycolysis occurs in the
chloroplasts. 9-1 The net gain of ATP molecules after glycolysis is
3 ATP molecules.
2 ATP molecules.
3 pyruvic acid molecules.
4 pyruvic acid molecules 9-1 Fermentation releases energy from food molecules in the absence of
alcohol. 9-1 The first step in fermentation is always
lactic acid production.
the Krebs cycle.
alcohol production. 9-1 END OF SECTION In which forms is the energy in food stored? 2 2 12 6 2 2 Glycolysis 2