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Conflict in the Colonies
Transcript of Conflict in the Colonies
By 1750 the colonies had grown tremendously, due to the promise of religious tolerance, cheap land and economic opportunities.
During this time, the colonies had learned to govern themselves by forming assemblies.
Assemblies were made up of a group of elected representatives who had the power to pass laws and create taxes.
Each assembly also decided how taxes would be spent.
Dreams of Moving West
As the colonies grew, settlers began to dream of moving West to the Ohio River Valley.
One Little Problem:
England and France both claimed this territory as theirs. As an extension of the 7 Years War already being fought in Europe, France and England fought in America over The Ohio River Valley or Basin.
It's during the French and Indian War that A young, ambitions, wealthy Virginian named George Washington begins to make a name for himself.
Little did Washington know, as a British soldier in the French and Indian War that he would somehow become General of the first Continental Army and lead the Americans to a victory against a British superpower.
The French and Indian war raged on for years on the frontier, but the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763. This brought the war to an end, and redrew the French, English and Spanish borders in America.
The Treaty of Paris...
ended the war and forced France to redistribute their American land to Great Britain and Spain.
Before the Treaty
After the Treaty
The Treaty of Paris brought peace between the French and the British, but the Native Americans continued to attack colonists who were settling on their land.
The French and Indian War was very costly, and King George and British Parlaiment did not want to spend more money protecting the colonists from Indian attacks, so he decided to pass a new law called
This law drew a line down the Appalachian Mountains and outlawed any colonial settlement west of that line.
The Proclamation of 1763.
Many colonists saw this as a problem for 3 main reasons:
(1) So much of the good farmland east of the Appalachians had been settled. The land west of the mountains was fertile and open.
(2) Many colonists had fought and died in the French and Indian War, and felt that this land was rightfully theirs to settle.
(3) Many colonists had already moved onto the land, and the Proclamation required them to move back east. Moving was costly and dangerous.
King George and British Parliament largely ignored these complaints, and in return, the colonists largely ignored the Proclamation.
This is important, because it represents one of the first times where the King ignored the colonists grievances, and the colonists openly defied his orders.
Besides the issue concerning
the Proclamation line, the French and Indian
War left Great Britain with...
A war debt
The Stamp Act, was another tax law. It required the colonists to buy a stamp (like the one to the right) for every piece of paper they used. This was felt by nearly every colonist, because newspapers, licenses, wills and even playing cards had to be printed on "stamped paper".
The colonists claim tyranny
The colonists didn't mind paying taxes passed by their own assembly, but the colonies weren't represented in Parliament. This reasoning led to the spread of the phrase...
The Stamp Act (1765)
"No taxation without representation!"
To pay off this debt, Parliament decided to pass new...
The Sugar Act (1764)
The Sugar Act was a law that enforced a tax on sugar imports. Since sugar was used to make rum, the tax increased the price of rum.
The Townshend Acts (1767)
The Townshend Acts placed even more taxes on other British goods, including glass, lead, and tea.
The Colonists reacted to the laws in different ways:
Many colonists protested by boycotting (refusing to buy) taxed products.
How do boycotts work?
A group of people want a company/government to change their policy.
That group decides to not purchase the company's product or government taxed good until it changes the policy.
The group then works to recruit more people to join in on the boycott. The more people that join, the less money the company/government will make, the more likely the company/government will be to change their policy.
Modern Day Boycotts (attempts)
Some colonists protested more violently
Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty
Sam Adams was a wealthy Bostonian who helped organize a group called the Sons of Liberty. This group worked to promote boycotts, hold protests in the street and even attack tax collectors.
The Quartering Act (1765)
Tensions Rise in Boston
Boston was the biggest, most important city in the colonies, and nowhere was the tension over these new laws felt more.
The protests, boycotts and violence that consumed Boston, led British Parliament to repeal, or cancel many of the taxes, including the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act and all of the Townshend Acts...
except for the tax on tea.
King George was determined to show the colonists that he was in control. To do that, he and Parliament sent more British troops to Boston to ensure peace and obedience. In addition to sending troops, they passed a new law known as the Quartering Act.
Under this new law, colonists were required to house, and supply British soldiers, without reimbursement.
Tensions already high over "Taxation Without Representation"
The perfect storm for disaster.
British troops in Boston to enforce the unpopular laws.
A simple math equation