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Methods of Teaching

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Izabela Jarosz

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Methods of Teaching

What are the 6 Cs
in teaching?
methodology
approach
method
curriculum/syllabus
technique/procedure

Basic concepts
The Direct Method
As you watch, think about the principles and techniques
The Audio Lingual Method
As you watch, think about the principles and techniques used.
Grammar Translation
Methods of Teaching
The Silent Way
Suggestopedia
Total Physical Response
Community Language Learning
Communicative Lg Teaching
Principles:
to be able to read literature written in a foreign language (literary language is superior to spoken language)
to be able to translate each language into the other
communication is not the goal
skills to be developed are reading and writing
the teacher is the authority in the classroom
accuracy over fluency
to find native language equivalents for all target language words
attention to similarities between the target and the native language
to learn about the grammar or form of the target language
deductive application of an explicit grammar rule
language learning (memorization) provides good mental exercise
to be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language
grammatical paradigms should be committed to memory
Techniques:
• Translation of a Literary Passage
• Reading Comprehension Questions
• Antonyms/Synonyms
• Cognates (words with common etymology)
• Deductive Application of Rules
• Fill-in-the-blanks Exercise
• Memorization
• Use of Words in Sentences
• Composition
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study; comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge.
An approach is a set of principles or ideas about the nature of language learning which would be consistent over time
A method is a plan for presenting the language material to be learned and should be based upon a selected approach.
An approach becomes a method when an instructional system is designed, considering the objectives of the teaching/learning, how the content is to be selected and organized, the types of tasks to be performed, the roles of students and the roles of teachers.
A technique
is the actual implementation in the language classroom
A procedure refers to different behaviors, practices and techniques observed in the classroom
A syllabus is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.
Curriculum is the total learning experience provided by a school. It includes the content of courses (the syllabus), the methods employed (strategies), and other aspects, like norms and values, which relate to the way the school is organized

Principles
:

Reading developed through practice with speaking. Language is primarily speech.
Objects (e.g. realia or pictures) used to help students understand the meaning.
No native language in the classroom.
The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate (direct associations).
Students learn to think in the target language (vocabulary in full sentences instead of memorizing word lists).
Techniques:

Reading Aloud
Question and Answer Exercise
Getting Students to Self-correct (T offers a choice)
Conversation Practice (questions/answers)
Fill-in-the-blanks Exercise
Dictation
Map Drawing
Paragraph Writing
The purpose of language learning is communication (asking/answering questions).
Pronunciation should be worked on right from the beginning.
Self-correction facilitates language learning.
Lessons should contain some conversational activity/opportunity for students to use language in real contexts.
Grammar should be taught inductively (no rules given).
Writing is an important skill, to be developed from the beginning (dictations).
The syllabus is based on situations or topics, not on linguistic structures.
Learning another language also involves learning how speakers of that language live (a proverb).
Principles:
Language forms occur most naturally within a context.
L1 and L2 have separate linguistic systems (should be kept as L1 interferes with acquiring L2).
T is a model of the target language (Ss mimic the model).
Habit formation (the more repetition, the greater the learning).
Errors lead to the formation of bad habits (immediate teacher correction).
The aim is to learn how to use the language to communicate.
Particular parts of speech occupy particular ‘slots’ in sentences (parts of speech=slots).
Positive reinforcement.
Ss respond to both verbal and nonverbal stimuli.
Pattern practice helps students to form habits.
Ss should ‘overlearn,’ (answer automatically).
T=an orchestra leader—conducting, guiding, and controlling the students’ behavior in L2.
To acquire the structural patterns; students will learn vocabulary afterward.
Learning L2 the same as the acquisition of the native language.
To overcome the habits of their native language.
Speech is more basic to language than the written form (the ‘natural order’ : listening, speaking, reading, and writing).
Language cannot be separated from culture. Culture is not only literature and the arts, but also the everyday behavior of the people who use the target language.
One of the teacher’s responsibilities is to present information about that culture.
Dialogue Memorization
Backward Build-up (Expansion) Drill (parts)
Repetition Drill (T model)
Chain Drill (S to S)
Single-slot Substitution Drill (word)
Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (phrase)
Transformation Drill (e.g. positive into negative)
Question-and-answer Drill
Use of Minimal Pairs
Complete the Dialogue
Grammar Game
Techniques:
T starts with something ss already know and build from that to the unknown.
T gives only what help is necessary.
Ss develop their own ‘inner criteria’ for correctness.
Ss' actions can tell the teacher whether or not they have learned.
Ss rely on each other and themselves.
T works with the ss while the ss work on the language.
T makes use of what students already know.
Learning involves transferring what one knows to new contexts.
Reading is worked on from the beginning but follows from what students have learned to say.
Principles:
Silence is a tool. It helps to foster autonomy, or the exercise of initiative.
T speaks, but only when necessary.
T's silence encourages group cooperation.
Meaning is made clear by focusing ss’ perceptions, not through translation.
No praizing, no criticizing.
Errors are important and necessary to learning. They show T where things are unclear.
Ss need to learn to listen to themselves.
T needs to look for progress, not perfection.
Learning takes place in time. Ss learn at different rates.
Ss engage in a great deal of meaningful practice without repetition.
The material is introduced logically, expanding upon what students already know.
Ss gain autonomy in the language by exploring it and by making choices.
Language is for self-expression.
Valuable information come from ss' feedback.
Some learning takes place naturally as we sleep (no homework given).
The syllabus is composed of linguistic structures constantly being recycled.
The skills of speaking, reading, and writing reinforce one another.
Techniques:
Sound–Color Chart
Teacher’s Silence
Peer Correction
Rods
Self-correction Gestures
Word Chart
Fidel Charts
Structured Feedback
Principles
Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment.
Peripheral learning - unconscious learning from the environment.
Trusting and respecting T’s authority=accepting and retaining information better.
Ss bring certain psychological barriers with them. that T ‘desuggests’.
new identity=feeling of security and being open.
Dialogue contains language Ss can use immediately.
Songs are useful for ‘freeing the speech muscles’ and evoking positive emotions.
T integrates indirect positive suggestions (‘there is no limit to what you can do’).
T should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary, but not dwell on them.
Fine art provides positive suggestions.
Native language translation.
Communication takes place on ‘two planes’: on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factors which influence the linguistic message.
On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant. When there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced.
A calm state is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers.
The distinction between the conscious and the subconscious is most blurred.
Dramatization and fantasy activate the material and reduce barriers to learning.
The fine arts (music, art, and drama) enable suggestions to reach the subconscious.
Novelty aids acquisition.
Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that ss achieve a state of infantilization so that they will be more open to learning.
In an atmosphere of play, the conscious attention of the learner does not focus on linguistic forms, but rather on using the language.
Errors are corrected gently, not in a direct, confrontational manner.
Positive Classroom Set-up
Peripheral Learning
Positive Suggestion
Choose a New Identity
Role-play
First Concert
Second Concert
Primary Activation
Creative Adaptation
Techniques
Principles:
Meaning is conveyed through actions.
Memory is activated through S response.
L instruction should address the right hemisphere of the brain (one that controls nonverbal behavior).
L2 is presented in chunks, not just word by word.
Understanding developed before speaking.
Ss learn L2 by moving their bodies.
The imperative is a powerful linguistic device.
Learning through observing and performing actions.
Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
Against memorizing fixed routines.
Correction is carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
Ss develop flexibility in understanding novel combinations of L2 chunks.
Learning is more effective when it is fun.
Speaking over writing.
Ss speak when they are ready.
Errors are the part of learning process.
Techniques:
Using Commands to Direct Behavior
Role Reversal
Action Sequence (
Take out a pen. Take out a piece of paper.
)
Principles:
Building a relationship with and among Ss.
To feel secure, Ss should have an idea of what will happen in each activity.
Language is for communication.
The superior knowledge and power of the T can be threatening.
T does not remain in the front of the classroom.
T is sensitive to Ss’ level of confidence (e.g. translates).
To feel secure, Ss know the limits of an activity.
T and Ss are whole persons (share experience, learning and build community).
Each Ss is unique.
The teacher ‘counsels’ the students. He
does not offer advice, but rather shows
them that he is really listening to them and
understands what they are saying.
L1 is used to make the meaning clear and to build a bridge from the known to the unknown.
Ss attend to one task at a time.
T encourages S initiative and independence, but not uncomfortable silence.
Ss need quiet reflection time in order to learn.
Ss learn best when they have a choice.
Ss learn to discriminate the differences and similarities in L2 forms.
In groups, Ss feel a sense of community and can learn from each other as well as the T.
Cooperation, not competition, is encouraged.
Developing a community among the class members builds trust.
Learning will best take place somewhere in between novelty and familiarity.
Ss reflect on lg and experience.
The ‘syllabus’ is generated primarily by the Ss.
Techniques:
Recording Student Conversation
Transcription
Reflective Listening
Human Computer
Small Group Tasks
Principles
Authentic lg in a real context.
Communicative competence (figuring out the speaker's intention).
L2 is a vehicle for classroom communication.
The process of communication rather than just mastery of language forms.
Ss must learn about cohesion and coherence.
Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events— purpose of exchange.
Ss express their ideas and opinions.
Errors are tolerated and seen as natural.
T establishes situations that promote communication.
Communicative interaction encourages cooperation.
The social context is essential in giving meaning.
The use of language forms appropriately is crucial.
T acts as a facilitator and advisor.
S has a choice not only about what to say, but also how to say it in communication.
The grammar and vocabulary follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors.
Ss work on lg as it is used in real communication.
Techniques:
Authentic Materials
Scrambled Sentences
Language Games
Picture Strip Story
Role-play
Post-method Pedagogy
teaching Englishg free from the method-based restrictions
teachers’ autonomous decision-making
Why?
a considerable overlap in theory and practice
no single method brings success in ELT classroom
Full transcript