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Transcript of Elderly (1)
OF AGING Types of Aging Biological Aging
This refers to progressive anatomical and physiological changes in the body. Psychological Aging
This refers to age-related changes in behavior which reflect the level of maturity and ability to cope with the stresses of life. Social Aging
This refers to age-related changes as a result of defined roles or other social forces. Social aging does not necessarily coincide with biological or psychological aging. There are variations, for instance, in different societies as to the legal definition of the age of retirement. As a result, many people are unemployed or prevented from working, not due to biological or psychological restraints but due to society’s definition of “old age,” a situation manifesting societal imposition on elderly behavior. RESPECT FOR FAMILY If the elderly person belongs to one’s parents’ generation, then he or she is addressed as Tiyo or Tata (Uncle) for the male, or Tiya or Nana (Aunt) for the female, again irrespective of actual blood ties. Within the same generation, the older person among the Tagalogs is addressed as Kaka or Ka followed by the first name such as Ka Pedro. Among the Ilokano it is Manong for the male and Manang for the female. A young person may not address an older one, much less, as aged person, by his first name only. A polite way to speak to the elderly person is to use po or ho and to use the plural form of the second person, kayo, instead of the singular form ikaw or ka for “you.” Another sign of respect is to address an elderly person who belongs to one’s grandparents’ generation as Lolo (Grandfather) or Lola (Grandmother), without regard for real or direct consanguineal or affinal connections. The mano tradition in which the young person kisses the hand of an elderly is also another way of showing respect. Today, however, especially in the urban areas, some of these practices are not often followed anymore. Respect is shown in other ways like kissing an elderly on the cheek, offering her a seat, or extending a helping hand to an elderly person crossing the street. THE AGED PARENTS Traditional Filipino values which pertain to the elderly are filial respect and utang na loob (dept of gratitude) to parents. Aged parents are traditionally regarded with the highest esteem and placed in a special position of honor. They set the tone of family affairs with their advice and admonitions. They are regarded as authority figures in family affairs and are considered part and parcel of the family decision-making process (Samonte and Obordo, 1983). Children not only feel that they owe their parents respect, obedience, obedience, and love; they also feel eternally grateful for having been brought up and supported by them. It is traditionally the filial obligation of children to take care of their aged parents into their custody, to love and care for them, and give them the same kind of attention they themselves received as children. The community frowns upon a person who is well-placed in socio-economic ladder but does not share his resources with his parents. Similarly, a poor person, no matter how meager his earnings, is expected to give a part of what he has so that his parents may be comforted. It is considered a disgrace to neglect aged parents of leave them in the care of strangers. Considered head of the household by virtue of not only age but also of their role as main breadwinner, parents have the final say on such matter as personal conduct of members and house rules as well as family business. Even when they are too old to be able to do much physically, parents are still valued for they serve as the “eyes and ears” of their children who go out to work. This pattern extends to the Filipino emigrants abroad who send for their parents across the seas. The parent is viewed not only as a source of comfort and pleasure in the household but also as someone to watch the house and the grandchildren while breadwinners are working (Griffiths, 1981). Thus, the elderly Filipino has a significant role in the family. THE GRANDPARENTS Since grandparents have many years of experience behind them, their advice is sought, valued and often followed. If the grandmother is still strong enough to do housekeeping, the wife or mother of the house is relieved of a lot of household chores. Most importantly, since grandparents are left to care for the children, they, next to parents, exercise the most influence on the children’s development. THE CARE-GIVERS For the widowed, a child, usually a daughter, or, in her absence, a daughter-in-law assumes the care-giving function. In the case of the never-married elderly, the siblings, and the siblings’ children whom he or she helped bring up, usually serve as caretakers. Stressful situations to which caretakers of elderly are subjected to, enumerated by Springer and Brubaker:
1. Added Expenses
2. Undefined Roles
4. Changes in Family Routine
5. Role Shifts or “Filial Maturity”
6. Competing Demands
7. Family Conflict
8. Changes in Behavior of the Elderly. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE ELDERLY In the Philippines, there are 21 institutional homes for the aged, most of which are sponsored by private, religious, or interfaith groups, philanthropies, civic and other non-governmental organizations. The residents in these old age homes are misplaced, usually migrants who are very poor, without any family, or by abandoned by relatives. Reasons why the aged are driven to Golden Acres:
2. Burden to immediate family
4. Low educational attainment
6. Economic constrains
7. Negative behavior
11. Romantic Attachment Reasons why the elderly do not want to be put in to a home for the aged:
1. The usually opt for an independent life (especially those belonging to the more affluent classes)
2. For sentimental reasons, they wish to stay in the same house where they have lived so long.
3. They want to live a quiet and peaceful life, away from the hustle and excitement of modern living. NEEDS AND PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY 1. Decrease or loss of income due to retirement and loss of work;
2. Social and emotional problems including feelings of neglect and rejection, loneliness and isolation, and helplessness and worthlessness due to reversal of roles and decrease of physical activities;
3. Inadequate health services in rural areas for primary health care and maintenance of the aged;
4. Housing shortage causing either separation from children when they get married, or overcrowding due to additional members; 5. Lack of available community services provided by the government.
6. Monetary (except for the well-to-do)
7. Losing reason for living
8. Social interaction 9. Emotional anxiety and insecurity(loss of physical attractiveness, health and vigor)
10. Loss of spouse
11. Loss of a close friend
12. How to best spend the remaining years of life
13. How to adjust to what is left of their strength and resources Modernization, urbanization, and industrialization can have a negative impact on the position of the elderly in the family.
-Changing nature of economic production
-Segregation of the aged (Generation Gap) SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE ELDERLY The Philippine Constitution provides that “the family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do so through just programs of social security” (Article 15,Section 4) Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 (R.A. 9994) Republic Act No. 9994, also known as “Expanded Senior Citizens Welfare Act of 2010,” which was recently signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo last February 10, 2010, emphasizes new benefits for senior citizens. R.A. 9994 is entitled as “an Act granting additional benefits to Senior Citizens, further amending Republic Act No. 7432, as Amended, Otherwise Known as “An Act to Maximize the Contribution of Senior Citizens to Nation Building, Grant Benefits and Special Privileges and For Other Purposes.” Unlike Republic Act 7432 which provides 20% discount for senior citizens availing medical, educational, transportation, lodging and other basic necessities, R.A. 9994 also provides death benefit assistance of a minimum of P2,000.00 to the nearest surviving relative of a deceased senior citizen which amount shall be subject to adjustments due to inflation in accordance with the guidelines to be issued by the Department of Social Welfare and Development. Moreover, the government shall also provide senior citizens employment, education, health and social services, housing, access to public transport, additional government assistance and social pension of P500.00 for indigent senior citizens, on a monthly basis. (DSWD) AUTHORITY OF THE ELDERS Pattern of Authority:
-critical views of young people
towards the traditional attitudes and behavior of the elderly Department of Social Welfare and Development. (July, 2010). NEW LAW GIVES NEW BENEFITS FOR SENIOR CITIZENS. Retrieved September 2012. http://www.fo10.dswd.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=140:new-law-gives-new-benefits-for-senior-citizens
Medina, B. (1991). THE FILIPINO FAMILY, A Text with Selected Readings. Kayumanggi Press. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press Diliman. Pattern of Authority: